MACLEAN, FRANCIS. (1718–1781). British officer. Commissioned as an ensign in the Cameronians in 1738 and promoted in 1742, Francis MacLean resigned in 1745 to join the Clan Maclean Battalion of the Jacobite army as a lieutenant. He became a fugitive after the battle of Culloden, in which insurgents challenged the rule of the British king. He joined the Dutch army, but resigned his Dutch commission in 1750, when he rejoined the British army and purchased a lieutenancy in the forty-second ("Black Watch") Regiment two years later. As a captain of this regiment he fought in Canada and the West Indies before taking part in the capture of Belle Isle, off Brittany, in 1761.
Having distinguished himself in Portugal during the years from 1762 to 1778, he was ordered back to England, promoted to brigadier general, and sent to Canada as governor of Halifax. After routing the Patriots who mounted the Penobscot expedition, a naval assault that took place from July to August 1779, MacLean returned to Halifax, where he died on 4 May 1781.
revised by Michael Bellesiles
"MacLean, Francis." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maclean-francis
"MacLean, Francis." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Retrieved November 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/maclean-francis
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.