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Laudabiliter, c.1155–60. The authenticity of this papal bull, granted by Adrian IV and recognizing Henry II as lord of Ireland, has been much debated. ‘Laudably and profitably does your magnificence contemplate extending your glorious name on earth …’ The balance of scholarly opinion finds in its favour, but there is, in any case, little doubt that the papacy supported Henry's pretensions. Alexander III, Adrian's successor, praised Henry's attempt to subjugate ‘this barbarous and uncouth race which is ignorant of divine law’.

J. A. Cannon

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