La Luzerne, Anne-César de
La Luzerne, Anne-César de
LA LUZERNE, ANNE-CÉSAR DE. (1741–1791). (Chevalier de, later Marquis.) Second French minister to the United States. He joined the regiment of French Guards in 1754 and served as a special envoy to the elector of Bavaria from 1777 to 1778. As successor to Gérard, he reached Philadelphia with his secretary, Marbois, after a leisurely overland trip from Boston in the fall of 1779. Luzerne had his credentials and a draft of his address to Congress sent in advance on 4 November. He redrafted it for American tastes and presented it on November 17 to near universal acclaim. In a similar fashion he revealed an astute understanding of American sensitivities and quickly became a major political force in American affairs. When Maryland was persistently blocking ratification of the Articles of Confederation, La Luzerne brought that state into line by suggesting that the French naval forces they were requesting in the Chesapeake for protection against the British would not be possible unless Maryland ratified the Articles. Maryland ratified in February 1781. He was named maréchal de camp in December 1781. The minister plenipotentiary remained in America until the summer of 1784. Chevalier of the Order of Saint Louis, he was made a marquis in 1785. He served as ambassador to Great Britain from 1788 until his death in 1791.
SEE ALSO Barbé-Marbois, François, Marquis de.
O'Donnell, William Emmett. The Chevalier de la Luzerne, French Minister to the United States, 1779–1784. Louvain, Belgium: Bibliothèque de l'Université, 1938.
Sioussat, St. George L. "The Chevalier de la Luzerne and the Ratification of the Articles of Confederation by Maryland, 1780–1781." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 40 (1936): 391-418.
Stinchcombe, William C. The American Revolution and the French Alliance. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1969.
revised by Robert Rhodes Crout
"La Luzerne, Anne-César de." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/la-luzerne-anne-cesar-de
"La Luzerne, Anne-César de." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Retrieved December 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/la-luzerne-anne-cesar-de
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.