Hoover, Herbert C.
His humanitarian reputation stemmed from his direction of food relief for occupied Belgium, 1914–17. As head of the U.S. Food Administration (1917–18) under Democratic president Woodrow Wilson, and as secretary of commerce under Republican presidents Harding and Coolidge (1921–28), Hoover also established a reputation for efficient administration. Defeating Al Smith, he became president, 1929–33.
Although a progressive Republican, Hoover's popularity was undermined by the onset of the depression. In his foreign policy, he struck a balance between internationalism and traditional U.S. unilateralism, supporting open trade, but accepting a congressional high tariff. Thinking in terms of economic self‐sufficiency for the western hemisphere, he repudiated Theodore Roosevelt's interventionism and withdrew the Marines from Nicaragua.
Hoover emphasized arms reduction and nonmilitary strategies. He obtained some success in the London Naval Disarmament Treaty (1930), extending the 1922 battleship limitation to cruisers and submarines. His pacifism appeared most clearly after Japan's conquest of Manchuria in 1931. When the League of Nations failed to act, Hoover eschewed economic sanctions, which he thought might lead to war in an area not vital to the United States. Instead, he had Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson respond with the doctrine of nonrecognition of the illegal conquest.
Hoover's fear of an expansionist Soviet Union led him to oppose U.S. intervention in Europe on the Pacific before 7 December 1941, because although he abhorred the German and Japanese regimes, he feared Josef Stalin more. In 1942, he co‐authored The Problems of Lasting Peace, emphasizing that military success alone would not ensure peace, and urging a new postwar international organization to settle disputes peacefully; gradual disarmament; and a ban on military alliances. Hoover coordinated European food relief again in 1945–47. During the Cold War, he advocated U.S. naval and air defense of the western hemisphere and island bastions from Britain to Japan, Taiwan, and the Philippines. Against commitment of U.S. ground troops overseas, he opposed NATO and the Korean War, and supported President Eisenhower's increased reliance upon airpower.
[See also Nicaragua, U.S. Military Involvement in; World War I: Causes; World War I: Postwar Impact; World War II: Postwar Impact.]
David Burner , Herbert Hoover: A Public Life, 1979.
Gary Dean Best , Herbert Hoover: The Postpresidential Years, 2 vols., 1983.
Richard Norton Smith , An Uncommon Man: The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, 1984.
Gary Dean Best
"Hoover, Herbert C.." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 26, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hoover-herbert-c
"Hoover, Herbert C.." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved March 26, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hoover-herbert-c
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.