Skip to main content

FitzNigel, Richard

FitzNigel, Richard (d. 1198). Bishop of London (1189–98) and treasurer of England (c.1158–98). A member of the outstanding family who developed the sophisticated 12th-cent. English administrative system, he was son of Nigel, bishop of Ely, treasurer, and nephew of Henry II's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury. He was also successively archdeacon of Ely and dean of Lincoln (c.1184), mediated in the furious struggle between Longchamp and John, and was custodian for Richard's ransom. He is chiefly remembered for writing the Dialogus de Scaccario (Dialogue of the Exchequer), ‘a unique and precious document’ on the English governmental system. Written especially for administrative apprentices, it was the first manual anywhere in Europe to explain the mysteries of bureaucratic practice and auditing.

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"FitzNigel, Richard." The Oxford Companion to British History. . 22 Feb. 2019 <>.

"FitzNigel, Richard." The Oxford Companion to British History. . (February 22, 2019).

"FitzNigel, Richard." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved February 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.