barrier treaties. After their experience in 1672, when they were almost overrun by the French, the Dutch sought guarantees against renewed aggression. Their proposal was to garrison certain fortresses in the southern Netherlands, under Spanish sovereignty until Utrecht, under Austrian subsequently. Britain supported these demands while being anxious at the commercial advantage the Dutch might obtain. In 1715, as part of the Utrecht settlement, the Dutch were given the right to fortify seven towns, including Tournai and Namur, and to share one other with the Austrians. The Austrians were to provide the cost out of local revenues. The fortresses were a persistent cause of irritation between the Dutch and the Austrians and served little military purpose, being easily overrun in 1745.
J. A. Cannon
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