Papal States, Diplomatic Service To
PAPAL STATES, DIPLOMATIC SERVICE TO
PAPAL STATES, DIPLOMATIC SERVICE TO. The United States maintained diplomatic ties to the papal states from 1797 to 1867. Congress established a consulate in Rome in 1797 to facilitate commercial and legal transactions between Americans and the papal states. In 1848, Congress approved President James K. Polk's proposal to raise the consulate to a ministry. This action was designed to affirm the reformist Pope Pius IX, improve commercial prospects in Rome, gain influence in other Catholic states, and please the burgeoning Catholic vote at home.
Formal diplomatic relations lasted less than two decades. Tension mounted when the U.S. chargé d'affaires Nicholas Browne celebrated the republic created in the 1848 revolution as a triumph of liberty over papacy. Congress terminated the mission to Rome in 1867. As the Italian unification movement challenged papal authority, liberals regretted U.S. recognition of the nondemocratic papal government, and the minuscule level of commerce provided no rationale for continuing to fund a mission.
Schreiner, Mary Naomi. "A Study of the Relations of the American Government with the Papal States from 1797 to 1867." Master's thesis, St. John College, 1950.
See alsoCatholicism .
"Papal States, Diplomatic Service To." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/papal-states-diplomatic-service
"Papal States, Diplomatic Service To." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved October 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/papal-states-diplomatic-service
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.