Skip to main content

Mexico, Confederate Migration to


MEXICO, CONFEDERATE MIGRATION TO. After the Civil War, many Confederate military and civil leaders, despondent and dreading Reconstruction, sought homes in Mexico. The exact number who went to Mexico will probably never be known, but an estimate of 2,500 seems reasonable. Southerners settled in all parts of the empire—on farms, in seaport towns, and in villages of the interior. Colonies were established in the provinces of Chihuahua, San Luis Potosí, Jalisco, and Sonora. The best known was the Cordova Valley Colony.

Ferdinand Maximilian encouraged migration to Mexico by offering low-priced public lands, free transportation for the needy, and tolerance for the Protestant churches and schools, but the movement failed because of unforeseen circumstances. There was a hostile Northern and Southern press; the U.S. government opposed the movement; and the settlers had little cash. The disturbed political conditions under Maximilian's regime aided in the downfall of the project. By 1867 most of the adventurers had returned to the United States.


George D. Harmon. "Confederate Migration to Mexico." Hispanic American Historical Review 17.

Geprge D.Harmon/a. r.

See alsoMexico, French in ; Shelby's Mexican Expedition .

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Mexico, Confederate Migration to." Dictionary of American History. . 20 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Mexico, Confederate Migration to." Dictionary of American History. . (February 20, 2019).

"Mexico, Confederate Migration to." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved February 20, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.