LINCOLN TUNNEL. Linking midtown Manhattan (at West Thirty-Ninth Street) and central New Jersey (in Weehawken), the Lincoln Tunnel provided a key element
for the mid-twentieth-century expansion of the inter-state metropolitan region centered in New York City. New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and powerful political leader Robert Moses identified the project as part of a regional development plan and as a depression-era source of employment. By allowing for more car and bus traffic, the Lincoln Tunnel (along with the Holland Tunnel, opened in 1927, and the George Washington Bridge, opened in 1931) reduced residents' dependency on commuter railroads and ferries and promoted the automobile as a central factor in the region's growth.
Construction of the first tube of the three-tube tunnel under the Hudson River began on 17 May 1934. Workers confronted claustrophobic and dangerous conditions, including floods and high pressures in a work zone as deep as ninety-seven feet below the river's surface. The first tube opened on 22 December 1937. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey responded to increasing traffic by opening a second tunnel in 1945 and a third in 1957. The total cost of the structure reached $75 million. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the Port Authority reported that nearly 21 million vehicles used the tunnel annually, making it the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world.
Lankevich, George J. American Metropolis: A History of New York City. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
"Lincoln Tunnel." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lincoln-tunnel
"Lincoln Tunnel." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved August 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/lincoln-tunnel
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.