American Indian Defense Association
AMERICAN INDIAN DEFENSE ASSOCIATION
AMERICAN INDIAN DEFENSE ASSOCIATION. In 1923, Richard E. Ely and other writers and social scientists interested in helping American Indians formed the American Indian Defense Association (AIDA). Ely named John Collier as executive secretary. The AIDA succeeded in defeating legislation harmful to Indians such as the Bursum Bill of 1922 and the Leavitt Bill of 1926, which would have taken land away from Pueblo Indians and curtailed American Indian civil and religious rights. Promoting American Indian cultural autonomy, it proposed a full reform agenda that included legislation on education, land rights, and arts and crafts. The Bureau of Indian Affairs did not, however, implement many of the proposed reforms until Collier's appointment as commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1933. Shortly thereafter, the AIDA merged with the Eastern Association on Indian Affairs to become the Association on American Indian Affairs headed by writer and anthropologist Oliver La Farge.
Collier, John. From Every Zenith: A Memoir and Some Essays on Life and Thought. Denver, Colo.: Sage Books, 1963.
Philip, Kenneth. "John Collier and the Crusade to Protect Indian Religious Freedom, 1920–1926." Journal of Ethnic Studies 1, no. 1 (1973): 22–38.
"American Indian Defense Association." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 7, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/american-indian-defense-association
"American Indian Defense Association." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved December 07, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/american-indian-defense-association
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.