In the 1980s, Madonna, born Madonna Louise Ciccone, burst upon the national landscape and became a focus of both intense adoration and controversy. Madonna—as singer, dancer, and actress—conveyed a provocative sexuality and fiery ambition that challenged sexual, racial, and religious values.
Madonna portrayed herself as a "Boy Toy" and "Material Girl" who enjoyed life's hedonistic (sensual) pleasures. She courted fame and celebrity with her suggestive lyrics, naughty-girl persona, controversial behavior, and brief marriage to actor Sean Penn (1960–). Her legion of mostly female fans viewed Madonna as a symbol of female empowerment.
Madonna's willingness to defy conventions and political correctness earned her criticism from conservatives and liberals alike. She remained a rock superstar and pop icon (symbol) throughout the 1990s. However, her attempts at a film career were less satisfactory. Her best films include: Desperately Seeking Susan (1985), Dick Tracy (1990), and Evita (1998). By 2002, Madonna had married director Guy Ritchie (1968–) and was the mother of two. Her music remains popular and still often fuels the flames of controversy.
For More Information
Anderson, C. Madonna: Unauthorized. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Madonnamusic.com.http://www.madonnamusic.com (accessed April 1, 2002).
Metz, A., and C. Benson, eds. The Madonna Companion: Two Decades ofCommentary. New York: Schirmer Books, 1999.
"Madonna (1958–)." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/culture-magazines/madonna-1958
"Madonna (1958–)." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. . Retrieved September 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/culture-magazines/madonna-1958
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.