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Samnites (săm´nīts), people of ancient Italy. Their country was Samnium. The Samnites were Oscan-speaking and therefore should be included among the Sabelli. The Tabula Agnonensis, a bronze tablet that carries an inscription engraved in the full Oscan alphabet, is an important record of the language. The loose confederation of agricultural tribes, expanding in the 4th cent. BC, came into conflict with the Romans over Campania. There was probably a good deal of warfare before the three Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, c.326–304 BC, 298–290 BC), in which the Romans won control of central and S Italy. Although the Samnites continued to fight against Rome with Pyrrhus, Hannibal and later Marius in the Social War, they were crushed (82 BC) by Sulla before the gates of Rome; most of them were killed. Some survivors were sold into slavery; the rest were Romanized.

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Samnite a member of an Oscan-speaking people of southern Italy in ancient times, who spent long periods at war with republican Rome in the 4th to 1st centuries bc.

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