MILETUS , city in Asia Minor captured by Alexander the Great in 334 b.c.e. According to a document cited by Josephus (Ant. 14:244–6), the inhabitants of Miletus during the Roman period attacked the Jews, "forbidding them to observe their Sabbaths, perform their native rites or manage their produce [tithes] in accordance with their custom." The Roman proconsul, Publius Servilius Galba, the author of the aforementioned document, was informed at Tralles of the inhabitants' actions by Prytanis, the son of Hermas and a citizen of Miletus. The proconsul subsequently ruled in favor of restoring the rights of the Jewish population. An inscription from the Roman theater refers to "the place of the Jews who are also called God-fearing." A ruined building dating from the late Roman-Byzantine period has been surmised by some to have been a synagogue.
Schuerer, Gesch, 3 (19094), 16, 110, 125, 174; Juster, Juifs, 1 (1914), 252 n. 3; Frey, Corpus, 2 (1952), 14–15; E.L. Sukenik, Ancient Synagogues in Palestine and Greece (1934), 40–42; Mayer, Art, nos. 816–7.