Stenogyne Bifida

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Stenogyne bifida

No Common Name

ListedOctober 8, 1992
FamilyLamiaceae (Mint)
DescriptionClimbing perennial mint with oval shaped leaves bearing black nutlet fleshy fruit.
HabitatSteep ridges in 'ohi'a-dominated montane mesic to wet forests.
ThreatsHabitat disturbance, and predation by wild, feral, or domestic animals.


Stenogyne bifida is a climbing perennial herb with glabrous to slightly ciliated four-angled stems. The opposite, membranous toothed leaves of this mint are oval or elliptical in shape, measuring 1.7-4 in (4.3-10.1 cm) long. The leaves are glabrous with the exception of the midribs. The flowers of S. bifida are usually arranged in groups ranging from two to six in each of several whorls acute at the stems. The sepals are fused into a toothed calyx which is mostly glabrous, radially symmetrical, and narrowly bell-shaped. The petals are fused into a nearly straight, yellow tube 0.4-0.6 in (1-1.5 cm) long that flares into pale brown lobes comprising an upper lip about 0.2 in (0.5 cm) long and a lower lip about 0.1 in (0.25 cm) long. The fleshy fruit is a black nutlet.


Stenogyne bifida typically grows on steep ridges in 'ohi'a-dominated montane mesic to wet forests at elevations between 1,450 and 4,000 ft (442 and 1,219 m) on East Molokai. Associated plant species include hapu'u, manono, 'olapa, kanawao, and 'ala'a.


The historical distribution of S. bifida on Molokai was from Waianui to Pukoo Ridge. The species is known today only from one East Molokai population that numbered 12 individuals in 1995.


Hoofed mammals are pervasive threats to S. bifida and may even eat this species when it is available. Because S. bifida is limited to only one population, it is very vulnerable to stochastic extinction.

Conservation and Recovery

Seeds of this species have been collected and propagated by the National Tropical Botanical Garden. Alien plant control was conducted in 1995 around the S. bifida population on Kamakou Preserve.


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Regional Office, Division of Endangered Species
Eastside Federal Complex
911 N.E. 11th Ave.
Portland, Oregon 97232-4181
(503) 231-6121

Pacific Islands Ecological Services Field Office
Room 6307, 300 Ala Moana Blvd.
Honolulu, Hawaii 96850
Telephone: (808) 541-2749
Fax: (808) 541-2756


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 8 October 1992. "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status for 16 Plants from the Island of Molokai, Hawaii." Federal Register 57 (196): 46325-46340.