No Common Name
|February 25, 1994
|Climbing perennial plant with hairy four-angled stems that are woody at the base, and flowers that grow in groups of six along an unbranched leafy stalk.
|Shallow to deep, well-drained soils in clearings or along the banks of streams of diverse montane mesic to wet forests.
|Goats, alien plants, limited numbers.
Phyllostegia waimeae, a nonaromatic mint, is a climbing perennial plant with hairy four-angled stems that are woody at the base. The oval leaves are 2-5 in (5-12.7 cm) long, 1-2.4 in (2.5-6 cm) wide, and have rounded, toothed margins. They are wrinkled and sparsely dotted with oil glands. Flowers grow in groups of six along an unbranched leafy stalk usually 3.9-5.9 in (10-15 cm) long. The bracts below each flower stalk are broad and partially overlap the flowers. The calyx resembles an inverted cone with broad lobes. The corolla, 0.3-0.5 in (0.8-1.3 cm) long, is pinkish or may be white. The fruits, probably nutlets, have not been observed. Characteristics that distinguish this species from others in the genus are the nearly stalkless bracts that partially overlap and cover the flowers and relatively fewer oil glands on the leaves.
P. waimeae typically grows on shallow to deep, well-drained soils in clearings or along the banks of streams of diverse montane mesic to wet forests at elevations of 3,000-3,600 ft (915-1,100 m). Associated plant taxa include 'ohi'a and loulou.
Historically, P. waimeae was known from Kaholuamanu and Kaaha on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. In the late twentieth century, it was known from state land on Kauai in the Halemanu and Waimea Canyon areas.
Because the Halemanu population has not been seen for almost 40 years, the number of extant individuals is not known. The Waimea Canyon population consists of a single plant that has not been observed since 1969.
Habitat destruction by feral goats, erosion, and competition with introduced grasses are the major threats to P. waimeae. The species is also threatened by stochastic extinction and reduced reproductive vigor because of limited numbers.
Conservation and Recovery
The recovery of this and most other Hawaiian species depends on how well management practices can be implemented. The habitat of this and other Hawaiian species has undergone extreme alteration because of past and present land management practices, including the deliberate introduction of alien animals and plants, and agricultural and recreational development. To understand the recovery problems facing this species, it is necessary to understand the long-term causes of habitat destruction.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Regional Office, Division of Endangered Species
Eastside Federal Complex
911 N. E. 11th Ave.
Portland, Oregon 97232-4181
Telephone: (503) 231-6121
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Pacific Remote Islands Ecological Services Field Office
300 Ala Moana Blvd., Room 3-122
P.O. Box 50088
Honolulu, Hawaii 96850-5000
Telephone: (808) 541-1201
Fax: (808) 541-1216
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 25 February 1994. "Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status for 24 Plants from the Island of Kauai, HI." Federal Register 59 (38): 9304-9329.