Phyllostegia Mannii

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Phyllostegia mannii

No Common Name

ListedOctober 8, 1992
FamilyLamiaceae (Mint)
DescriptionNonaromatic climbing vine with many-branched four-sided, hairy stems.
HabitatShaded sites in sometimes foggy and windswept, wet, open, 'ohi'a-dominated forests.
ThreatsHabitat disturbance, predation by wild, feral, or domestic animals.


Phyllostegia mannii is a nonaromatic climbing vine with many-branched, four-sided, and hairy stems. The narrow triangular shaped or triangular-oval shaped leaves are opposite and ciliated and are 0.8-2.2 in (2-5.5 cm) long. These leaves have coarsely toothed margins. The clusters of four to six flowers are arranged in each of several false whorls along an unbranched flowering stem 1.6-6 in (4-15 cm) long. The calyx is a bell-shaped, lobed structure. The slightly curved, two-lipped corolla tube is about 0.3 in (0.8 cm) long and is thought to be white. The plants bears fleshy, dark-green to black nutlets, and has been observed with fruit in July. This species is distinguished from others in the genus by its hairiness, its thin and narrow leaves that are not pinnately divided, and its usually six flowers per false whorl in a terminal inflorescence.


P. mannii grows at elevations of 3,000-5,000 ft (915-1,525 m) on shaded sites in open, wet, windswept, and sometimes foggy 'ohi'a-dominated forests with a native shrub and tree fern (hapu'u) understory. Associated plant species on East Molokai include 'olapa, a few native ferns, and manono.


Historically, P. mannii was found in the Hawaiian Islands from Hanalilolilo to Ohialele on East Molokai and at Ukulele on East Maui. This plant is believed to be extinct from Maui, as it has not been seen in more than 70 years. This species is currently known only from Hanalilolilo within the Nature Conservancy's Kamakou Preserve on privately owned land. The two extant populations contained a total of four individuals in the mid-1990s.


The two known populations are threatened by feral pigs. Stochastic events or extreme climatic changes could dramatically affect the four remaining individuals of P. mannii.

Conservation and Recovery

Seeds have been collected and propagated by the National Tropical Botanical Garden. In order to prevent extinction, the propagation and maintenance of P. mannii genetic stock continues.


U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Regional Office, Division of Endangered Species
Eastside Federal Complex
911 N. E. 11th Ave.
Portland, Oregon 97232-4181
Telephone: (503) 231-6121

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Pacific Remote Islands Ecological Services Field Office
300 Ala Moana Blvd., Room 3-122
P.O. Box 50088
Honolulu, Hawaii 96850-5000
Telephone: (808) 541-1201
Fax: (808) 541-1216


U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 8 October 1992. "Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status for 16 Plants from the Island of Molokai, Hawaii." Federal Register 57 (196): 46325-46340.