1. First used by Sir William Temple (1628–99) in his Upon the Gardens of Epicurus (1685) to describe the Chinese way of planting in an apparently haphazard manner ‘without any Order of Disposition of Parts’, the term was popularized in mid-C18 England to describe irregularity, asymmetry, and the Picturesque qualities of being surprising through graceful disorder, and so was applied to irregular gardens, known as Chinese, or as les jardins anglo-chinois, embellished with Chinese bridges with fret work railings and vermilion-painted pagodas shaded by weeping willows. However, sharawadgi does not seem to be derived from the Chinese at all, but from a C17 notion of ‘Chineses’, which includes vague notions of ‘The Indies’ or ‘The Orient’. The key to the problem seems to be the Dutch East India Company, which had a factory at Deshima, Nagasaki. When Dutchmen, accompanied by the German Engelbert Kaempfer (1651–1716), visited the gardens at Kyoto in the late C17, they noted the ‘irregular but agreeable’ features ‘artfully made in imitation of nature’, and the Japanese words sorowaji or shorowaji suggesting asymmetry. It would appear that sharawadji is a corruption of the Japanese, filtered through Dutch, probably misheard by the C17 visitors to the Japanese gardens at Kyoto. Temple probably picked the word up from Dutchmen who had visited Japanese gardens.
2. Sharawadgi was also used (somewhat pretentiously) to describe irregular, asymmetrical, informal designs in town-planning circles in the 1940s.
Garden History, xxvi/2 (Winter 1998), 208–13;
C. Murray (1999);
"Sharawadgi." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/sharawadgi
"Sharawadgi." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved February 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/sharawadgi
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.