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moulds Fungi characterized by their branched filamentous structure (mycelium), including mushrooms and smaller fungi.

(1) They can cause food spoilage very rapidly, e.g. white Mucor, grey‐green Penicillium, black Aspergillus. Many also produce mycotoxins. (2) Some are used for large‐scale manufacture of citric acid (Aspergillus niger), ripening of cheeses (Penicillium spp.), and as sources of enzymes for industrial use. (3) A number of foods are fermented with moulds. (4) The mycelium of Fusarium spp. is used as mycoprotein. (5) Most of the antibiotics are mould products.

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