Skip to main content

Hirschfeld, Christian Cay Lorenz

Hirschfeld, Christian Cay Lorenz ( Caius Hirschfeld) (1742–92). German intellectual. His publications promoted the design of landscape gardens, starting with Anmerkungen über die Landhäuser und die Gartenkunst (Notes on country-houses and garden design—1773) and Theorie der Gartenkunst (Theory of garden-design—1775). These were followed by the huge five-volume Theorie der Gartenkunst (1779–85—which also came out in French as Théorie de l'Art des Jardins). Drawing heavily on English writers, he described exemplary gardens, contrasting them with Baroque French gardens (which he firmly associated with Absolutism), and he emphasized the value of gardens with their fabriques in the triggering of memory, associations, moods, and feelings. He was particularly interested in gardens as places of education, to raise the tone of society, and generally improve minds. In particular, he advocated public parks as places where the moral improvement of the populace would be achieved. His works were a major source by which English concepts of landscape gardens were disseminated in the German-speaking lands. Indirectly, too, his publications helped to promote ideas that led to the formation of the first garden-cemeteries.

Bibliography

Breckwoldt (1995);
Hirschfeld (1779–85);
Journal of Garden History, xiv/2 (Summer 1994), 92–118;
Kehn (1992);
Schepers (1980)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hirschfeld, Christian Cay Lorenz." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Hirschfeld, Christian Cay Lorenz." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 14, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hirschfeld-christian-cay-lorenz

"Hirschfeld, Christian Cay Lorenz." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved August 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hirschfeld-christian-cay-lorenz

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.