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Eiffel, Gustave (1832–1923). French engineer, he is best known for the iron tower bearing his name erected for the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Whilst the Eiffel Tower was an important step in the use of exposed metal for architectural purposes, Eiffel made other significant contributions, notably in bridge-building throughout Europe, South America, and Indo-China. His railway-bridge over the Truyère at Garabit, France (1880–4), was an example of his technical mastery. He was consultant for the Paris Exhibitions of 1867 and 1878, and devised a theory of how wrought-iron construction performed that enabled precision of design to be achieved. He worked with Boileau on the Bon Marché Department Store, Paris (1876), and designed the internal structural framework for the Statue of Liberty, NYC (1885).
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