Skip to main content
Select Source:

phanerophyte

phanerophyte One of Raunkiaer's life-form categories, being a plant whose perennating buds or shoot apices are borne on aerial shoots. Such plants are the least protected of those in Raunkiaer's scheme and therefore are most typical of environments where drought, cold, and exposure to strong winds are relatively infrequent. Several sub-categories are recognized, the most universal being:
a. evergreen phanerophytes without bud scales (tropical trees) or with bud scales; and

b. deciduous phanerophytes. These groups may be subdivided further according to height, as nano- (less than 2m), micro- (2–8 m), meso- (8–30 m), and mega- (more than 30m) phanerophytes. Other subgroups are epiphytic, stem succulent, and herbaceous phanerophytes, the last being confined to humid tropical environments. Compare CHAMAEOPHYTE, CRYPTOPHYTE, HEMICRYPTOPHYTE, and THEROPHYTE.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/phanerophyte-0

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved April 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/phanerophyte-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

phanerophyte

phanerophyte One of Raunkiaer's life-form categories, being a plant whose perennating buds or shoot apices are borne on aerial shoots. Such plants are the least protected of those in Raunkiaer's scheme and therefore are most typical of environments where drought, cold, and exposure to strong winds are relatively infrequent. Several subcategories are recognized, the most universal being: (a)evergreen phanerophytes without bud scales (tropical trees) or with bud scales; and(b)deciduous phanerophytes. These groups may be subdivided further according to height as nano- (less than 2 m), micro- (2–8 m), meso- (8–30 m), and mega- (more than 30 m) phanerophytes. Other subgroups are epiphytic, stem succulent, and herbaceous phanerophytes, the last being confined to tropical environments. Compare chamaeophyte; cryptophyte; hemicryptophyte; and therophyte.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/phanerophyte

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved April 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/phanerophyte

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

phanerophyte

phanerophyte A plant life form in Raunkiaer's system of classification (see physiognomy). Phanerophytes are large shrubs and trees in which the overwintering (perennating) buds are located high above the ground. The buds are thus at risk of exposure to drought stress or frost, and such plants occur mainly in regions where frost and drought are uncommon, such as the tropics.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/phanerophyte-1

"phanerophyte." A Dictionary of Biology. . Retrieved April 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/phanerophyte-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.