where R denotes the radix of the system. For example, in the decimal system the nine's complement of 0372 is 9627; in the binary system the one's complement of 1100 is 0011. See also complement number system, radix complement.
"radix-minus-one complement." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/radix-minus-one-complement
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