Error-correcting codes may be block codes or convolutional codes, and in either case are employed in a forward error-correction system. The most common error-correcting block codes are the Hamming codes, Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, simplex codes, and the Golay (23, 12) code.
Since errors may be corrected by detecting them and requesting retransmission, the process of error correction is sometimes taken to include backward error-correction systems and, hence, error-detecting codes.
See also Shannon's model, coding theory, coding bounds.
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