Haldeman, Joe 1943- (Robert Graham, Joe William Haldeman)
Haldeman, Joe 1943- (Robert Graham, Joe William Haldeman)
Born June 9, 1943, in Oklahoma City, OK; son of Jack Carroll (a hospital administrator) and Lorena Haldeman; married Mary Gay Potter (a teacher), August 21, 1965. Education: University of Maryland, B.S., 1967; University of Iowa, M.F.A., 1975; also attended American University and University of Oklahoma; participated in the Milford Writer's Workshop. Politics: "Skeptic." Religion: "Skeptic." Hobbies and other interests: Classical guitar, bicycling, woolgathering, strong drink, travel, gardening, astronomy, painting.
Home and office—Gainesville, FL. Office—MIT Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies, MIT, Rm. 14E-303, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Agent—Ralph Vicinanza, 111 8th Ave., Ste. 1501, New York, NY 10011. E-mail—[email protected]
Freelance writer, 1970—. University of Iowa, Iowa City, teaching assistant, 1975; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, adjunct professor, 1983—. Has also served as editor of Astronomy; and taught writing at University of North Florida and other schools. Military service: Served with U.S. Army, 1967-69; became combat engineer; served in Vietnam; wounded in combat; received Purple Heart and other medals.
Authors Guild, Science Fiction Writers of America (treasurer, 1970-73; chair of Grievance Committee, 1977-79; president, 1992-94), National Space Society, Writers Guild, Poets and Writers.
Hugo Award, World Science Fiction Convention, 1975, Nebula Award, Science Fiction Writers of America, 1975, and Locus Award, Locus magazine, 1975, all for The Forever War; Hugo Award, World Science Fiction Convention, 1976, and Locus Award, Locus magazine, 1976, both for best short story, for "Tricentennial"; Ditmar Award, 1976; Galaxy Award, 1978, for Mindbridge; Rhysling Award, Science Fiction Poetry Association, 1984, 1990; Nebula Award for Best Novella, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, 1990, for The Hemingway Hoax; Hugo Award, World Science Fiction Convention, 1991, for The Hemingway Hoax; Nebula Award, Science Fiction Writers of America, and World Fantasy Award, World Fantasy Convention, both 1993, both for "Graves"; Hugo Award, World Science Fiction Convention, Nebula Award, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, and Locus Award, Locus magazine, all 1995, all for "None So Blind"; Homer Award, 1995; Hugo Award, World Science Fiction Convention, Campbell Award, University of Kansas, and Nebula Award for Best Novel, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers, all 1998, all for Forever Peace; nominated for Hugo Award for Best Short Story, 2004, for "Four Short Novels"; James Tiptree Award, and Nebula Award, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, both 2005, both for Camouflage.
SCIENCE FICTION NOVELS
The Forever War (also see below), St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1975, trade paperback edition, EOS (New York, NY), 2003.
Mindbridge, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1976.
Planet of Judgment (a "Star Trek" novel), Bantam (New York, NY), 1977.
All My Sins Remembered, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1977.
(Author of introduction) Robert A. Heinlein, Double Star, Gregg (Boston, MA), 1978.
World without End (a "Star Trek" novel), Bantam (New York, NY), 1979.
(With brother, Jack C. Haldeman) There Is No Darkness, Ace (New York, NY), 1983.
Tool of the Trade, Morrow (New York, NY), 1987.
Buying Time, Morrow (New York, NY), 1989, reprinted, with an introduction by James Gunn, illustrated by Bryn Barnard, Easton Press (Norwalk, CT), 1989, published as The Long Habit of Living, New English Library (London, England), 1990.
The Hemingway Hoax (novella), Morrow (New York, NY), 1990.
Forever Peace, Ace (New York, NY), 1997.
Forever Free, Ace (New York, NY), 1999.
The Coming, Ace (New York, NY), 2000.
Guardian, Ace (New York, NY), 2002.
Camouflage, Ace (New York, NY), 2004.
Old Twentieth, Ace Books (New York, NY), 2005.
The Accidental Time Machine, Ace Books (New York, NY), 2007.
"WORLDS" TRILOGY; SCIENCE FICTION NOVELS
Worlds: A Novel of the Near Future, Viking (New York, NY), 1981, reprinted, Gollancz (London, England), 2002.
Worlds Apart, Viking (New York, NY), 1983.
Worlds Enough and Time: The Conclusion of the Worlds Trilogy, Morrow (New York, NY), 1992.
SHORT STORY COLLECTIONS
Infinite Dreams, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1978.
Dealing in Futures: Stories, Viking (New York, NY), 1985.
More Than the Sum of His Parts, Pulphouse (Eugene, WA), 1991.
Vietnam and Other Alien Worlds (with essays and poetry), New England Science Fiction Association Press (Framingham, MA), 1993.
None So Blind, Morrow (New York, NY), 1996.
War Stories, Night Shade Books (San Francisco, CA), 2005.
A Separate War and Other Stories, Ace Books (New York, NY), 2006.
The Devil His Due (produced at the University of Iowa Film Workshop), published in Fantastic (New York, NY), August, 1974.
The Moon and Marcek, published in Vertex (Los Angeles, CA), August, 1974.
The Forever War, produced by Organic Theater Company, Chicago, IL, 1983.
Cosmic Laughter: Science Fiction for the Fun of It, Holt Reinhart (New York, NY), 1974.
Study War No More: A Selection of Alternatives, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1977.
Nebula Award Stories 17, Holt Reinhart (New York, NY), 1983.
(With Martin H. Greenberg and Charles G. Waugh) Body Armor: 2000, Ace (New York, NY), 1986.
(With Martin H. Greenberg and Charles G. Waugh) Supertanks, Ace (New York, NY), 1987.
(Author of introduction) The Best of John Brunner, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1988.
(With Martin H. Greenberg and Charles G. Waugh) Spacefighters, Ace (New York, NY), 1988.
(With Martin H. Greenberg) Future Weapons of War, Baen (Riverdale, NY), 2007.
War Year (novel), Holt Reinhart (New York, NY), 1972, Pocket Books (New York, NY), 1978.
(As Robert Graham) Attar's Revenge (adventure novel), Pocket Books (New York, NY), 1975.
(As Robert Graham) War of Nerves (adventure novel) Pocket Books (New York, NY), 1975.
Robot Jox (screenplay) Empire, 1990.
1968: A Novel, Hodder & Stoughton (London, England), 1994, Morrow (New York, NY), 1995.
Saul's Death and Other Poems, Anamnesis Press (San Francisco, CA), 1996.
Also author of "I of Newton," an episode of The Twilight Zone,title Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 1985. Work included in numerous anthologies, including The Best from Galaxy, edited by Ejler Jakobbsen, Universal-Award, 1972; Best SF: 1972, edited by Harry Harrison and Brian Aldiss, Putnam, 1973; The Best Science Fiction of the Year—1972, edited by Terry Carr, Ballantine, 1973; Best SF: 1973, edited by Harry Harrison and Brian Aldiss, Putnam, 1974; The Best from Galaxy, Volume 3, Award, 1975; Nebula Award Stories 11, Harper, 1975; Best Science Fiction Stories, Dutton, 1977; Nebula Award Stories XII, Harper, 1977; Annual World's Best SF, DAW, 1978; The Best of Destinies, Ace, 1981; Best SF Stories of the Year, Dutton, 1980; Best of OMNI Science Fiction, 1980; Vicious Circles: The Best Modern Sestinas, 1994; The Year's Best Science Fiction, Eleventh Annual, St. Martin's Press, 1994; and Year's Best Science Fiction, edited by David Hartwell, HarperPrism, 1996.
Contributor to science fiction anthologies, including Orbit Eleven, edited by Damon Knight, Putnam, 1971; Showcase, edited by Roger Elwood, Harper, 1973; Ana-log 9, edited by Ben Bova, Doubleday, 1973; Combat SF, edited by Gordon Dickson, Doubleday, 1975; Frights, edited by Kirby McCauley, St. Martin's Press, 1976; Close Up: New Worlds, St. Martin's Press, 1977; Time of Passage, Taplinger, 1978; The Endless Frontier, Ace, 1979; The Road to SF 3, Mentor, 1979; Thieve's World, edited by Robert Asprin, Ace, 1979; The Future at War, Ace, 1980; Dark Forces, edited by Kirby McCauley, Viking, 1980; and Dogs of War, edited by David Drake, Warner, 2002.
Contributor of numerous short stories and articles to Analog, Galaxy, Isaac Asimov's SF Adventures, Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Omni, Playboy, and other publications.
Haldeman's novels have been translated into French, Italian, German, Dutch, Japanese, Hebrew, Spanish, Swedish, Russian, Greek, Czech, Bulgarian, and Korean.
Movie rights to The Forever War were purchased by the Sci-Fi Channel, 1997.
In his award-winning science fiction novel The Forever War, Joe Haldeman combines his experiences as a soldier during the Vietnam War, in which he was severely wounded, with a realistic, scientifically accurate presentation. The novel tells of a war that stretches across intergalactic distances and long periods of time, the soldiers involved traveling to remote battlefields via black holes. Because the soldiers travel at faster-than-light speeds, they age far slower than the civilians for whom they fight. This difference in relative age—the soldiers a few years older, their society centuries older—results in an alienation between the soldiers and the people they defend.
"Haldeman exercises his literary license," James Scott Hicks wrote in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, "to comment on, and ultimately to expunge from his memory, America's last ground war [Vietnam]." Hicks pointed out that Haldeman's first novel, War Year, based on his army diaries, deals with the Vietnam fighting directly. "But the demon of Vietnam," Hicks continued, "was not exorcised from Haldeman's soul by writing [War Year], and frontline combat became the subject of … The Forever War." Haldeman, Hicks believed, is particularly adept at presenting his "theme of quiet resentment felt by those waging war." Because of his scientific training in physics and astronomy, Haldeman is particularly careful to present The Forever War as realistically and accurately as possible. "The technology involved in this interplanetary campaign," Martin Levin, writing for New York Times Book Review noted in his review of The Forever War, that it "is so sophisticated that the book might well have been accompanied by an operator's manual. But then, all the futuristic mayhem is plugged into human situations that help keep the extraterrestrial activity on a warm and even witty plane." Hicks found that "Haldeman confronts his readers with painful questions, but he asks them with no small literary skill and with careful attention to scientific credibility."
Haldeman's "Worlds" trilogy, published over a span of a dozen years, follows the exploits of Marianne O'Hara. Born in space, she travels from her orbiting, manmade world to Earth, to engage in postgraduate studies at N.Y.U. in the first book, Worlds: A Novel of the Near Future. It details her adventures and misadventures on Twenty-second-century Earth, a far poorer, more decadent, chaotic, and dangerous extension of contemporary society. It is a society rapidly nearing a total breakdown—which, by the denouement, it indeed has, with Marianne's space ship veritably riding the shockwave of nuclear devastation home to New New York. Worlds Apart details Marianne's career as an ambitious politician of the orbital worlds, who, thinking her former lover, Jeff Hawkings, is dead (he isn't) from the nuclear holocaust, takes a pair of husbands. In addition, the book not only tracks Jeff's career, now peddling medications to devolved Earth tribes, it includes, noted Charles Platt in the Washington Post Book World, "a grab-bag of extraneous notions in between: a Manson-worshipping death cult, a starship with an anti-matter drive, a formalized menage-a-trois, a hijacked space shuttle, an expedition into regressed Florida, a new science of behavioral conditioning, and more." In the final book, Worlds Enough and Time, Marianne, her two husbands and her cybernetic "twin sister," along with 10,000 other would-be colonists, venture forth in the starship Newhome to seek their destinies on an Earth-like planet in the Epsilon Eridani system. A Publishers Weekly reviewer concluded: "Haldeman shows his strengths here: the workings of Newhome are believably complex, the novel's scientific background is neither strained nor especially complicated, and the reader's attention is focused on O'Hara's character, her inner life and her interpersonal relationships."
In addition to the obvious recurring theme of war—both real and imagined—in many of Haldeman's books, essayist Duncan Lunan noted another theme in the St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers. Referring back to The Forever War, where the enemy aliens are controlled by a hive-mind, Lunan said, "Mindbridge was another examination of human contact with a hive-mind, while All My Sins Remembered was a damning indictment not merely of big government but also of the standard SF attitude toward individuality. SF used to be full of people who find out that they're really someone else (usually someone more powerful), and part of the problem in identifying with central characters is often they lack individuality." Explained Lunan: "McGavin in All My Sins Remembered is a government agent, repeatedly given new identities through psychological conditioning and plastic surgery." Lunan added: "He is an individual moved and controlled by an organisation which commands his loyalty but is beyond his control." The theme of individuals preyed upon and controlled by ultra-powerful agencies or corporate entities is also central to Haldeman's "Worlds" trilogy, as with the CIA and KGB in Tool of the Trade, and by the wealthy in Buying Time. A Publishers Weekly contributor wrote: "Evoking painful nostalgia, … Haldeman uses bold language, powerful images and a graphic style to tell his emotional tale, in which concentrated, diary-like entries intensify the drama and despair."
Sue Martin, writing in the Los Angeles Times, termed The Hemingway Hoax "a bright, short science fiction novel, … [this] quirky effort offers a unique solution to one of the enduring literary mysteries of our time: Just what DID happen to Ernest Hemingway's missing manuscripts, lost in 1922 at the Gare de Lyon in Paris?" She continued: "For Hemingway fans, Haldeman's answer is a hoot, and as different a theory as you can find."
Forever Peace is a follow-up novel to the problems raised in Haldeman's acclaimed Forever War. In 2043, an American-led alliance has been battling with the third-world Ngumi confederation, primarily, on the alliance's part, with "soldierboys"—killing machines controlled by brain-linked "mechanics," among them, the protagonist, physicist Julian Class. Meanwhile, the Jupiter Project, the most ambitious scientific experiment of all time, circles Jupiter, and Julian's lover, Amelia, discovers it may endanger not only our solar system, but the universe, in a new "Big Bang." Among other complications, their attempt to stop the disaster runs afoul of an influential Christian cult, the Hammer of God, dedicated to bringing on the Endtime. A Publishers Weekly reviewer concluded: "As always, Haldeman, a Vietnam vet, writes with intelligence and power about the horrors of war, and about humanity's seeming inability to overcome its violent tendencies."
While Forever Peace quenched the thirst of many of Haldeman's devoted readers, fans still clamored for a sequel to The Forever War, which the author provided in Forever Free. According to Jackie Cassada, writing in Library Journal, Haldeman "continues his exploration of the essential nature of humanity in a deceptively simple story that questions the foundations of human belief." Haldeman describes life after the war, focusing on William and Margay Mandella, two retired soldiers banished to the frozen planet of Middle Finger by the highly evolved species of humans who took over when the war ended. Cassada recommended the book, crediting Haldeman with "clear, concise storytelling" and an "understanding of human behavior." A Publishers Weekly contributor called Forever Free "a well-written and worthy sequel to one of SF's enduring classics."
Following Forever Free, Haldeman wrote The Coming, a first-contact type story about a professor named Aurora Bell, who gets a message from an alien population announcing their upcoming visit to Earth. Bell attempts to warn officials by telling them about the message she's received, but no one cares to listen. Library Journal reviewer Cassada noted that Haldeman "demonstrates an uncanny ability to tell a large-scale story with a minimum of words" and commented that the book "provides food for thought as well as fast-paced action." The protagonist of Haldeman's next book, Guardian, is another courageous woman. The story follows Rosa Coleman, a woman from the late nineteenth century who leaves her abusive husband. Rosa believes she has an important destiny and a mystical raven verifies her belief. Cassada remarked that Haldeman "delivers an elegant parable of many worlds and multiple possibilities while telling the tale of a courageous woman whose life spans most of a century." Roland Green, writing in Booklist noted: "Many may prefer the historical traits of the novel to its SF aspect. They also may admit that Haldeman couldn't write a bad book to win a bet."
Haldeman's Camouflage, which won both the James Tiptree Award and the 2005 Nebula Award for Best Novel, is a futuristic thriller which focuses on two alien beings, one of them a chameleon of sorts, the other a shape-shifter. These creatures have lived on Earth for thousands of years, each with its own agenda. While the changeling looks for more of its kind out of curiosity, the chameleon searches for more of its kind to destroy them. The story revolves around these creatures and their evolution, and how they truly change when they come into contact with humankind. One contributor for Kirkus Reviews found the work disappointing, stating: "Well-constructed and intriguingly set up, but ultimately a disagreeable surprise: the story slips away, and you're left holding an empty coat." However, Booklist reviewer Carl Hays remarked that "Haldeman proves as engaging a storyteller as ever," and went on to praise Camouflage for its "irresistible premise and page-turning action."
Old Twentieth is set in an advanced future universe where mankind has conquered mortality and the only way to experience even the threat of death is through virtual reality, making the bloody twentieth century, the last century to include mortality, a popular VR destination. Then something goes wrong; someone dies during a VR experience, and readers begin to question the line between what is real and what is virtual. Regina Schroeder, reviewing the novel for Booklist, called Haldeman's book a "nicely circular story." Library Journal reviewer Jackie Cassada opined that Haldeman's effort "reflects his concern with the big issues—life and death, war and peace, good and evil."
When asked what first got him interested in writing, Haldeman told CA: "The short answer is reading. I can't remember not writing. When I was in grade school, I wrote poetry and drew graphic ‘novels,’ long and pointless, which my mother bound with her sewing machine.
"To be plainly honest, what mostly influences me is reading magazines. I come across an interesting article and go ‘Holy cow! I can use that!’—and go make a note about it.
"As far as ‘influences’ in the usual academic sense, they are obviously Robert Heinlein and Ernest Hemingway. Less obviously, Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Theodore Sturgeon and the Romantic poets. John Dos Passos. Chip Delany and Ursula Le Guin.
"I get up very early, between 3:30 and 4:30 nowadays, and write out on the porch until about sunup. I write in longhand with a fountain pen, slowly, more or less one unaltered draft. There's no electricity out there, so I use a couple of kerosene lamps. If I haven't written enough, four or five hundred words, I'll go back in the afternoon and write some more.
"I read aloud (subvocalizing, actually) while I write. The sound is important. I'll say a line over and over until it sounds right, and then write it down.
"In the afternoon, I type the day's work into the computer, changing one or two words. When the book is finished, about a year nowadays, I go over it pretty carefully a couple of times—once backwards, so I don't pay attention to the text, but rather to the patterns of words. I know that one error I always make is repetition, so I'm on the lookout for individual words repeated, and rhetorical patterns as well."
When asked the most suprising thing he has learned as a writer, Haldeman said: "What an odd question. I'm really not conscious of ‘learning’ stuff while I'm writing—it's sort of like ‘what is the most surprising thing you have learned while mowing the lawn?’ Writing is just an ordinary thing I do all the time. But I do see what you're driving at.
"One thing I learned from a reader is that the names I use for characters are too white-bread. A lot of Jims and Joes and Johnsons. So my next book will be about Ersatz Q. Jerkoff. And his homely armadillo companion E Is Not Em Cee Cubed.
"As a student of writing I've learned a couple of things. One is that every character in your story has to have his or her own voice; his or her independent reality. There's a strong ‘pull" to make your characters sound like you. It's real work to invent other voices. But that's one thing that separates the amateurs from the real workers.
"Stanley Elkin, a profoundly sad and funny man, taught me that there are two kinds of humor. Childish humor is about situation, the banana peel or accidental fart. Adult humor is about relationships, ‘take my wife, please’ or ‘my boss is such an idiot.’ An interesting fictional situation is when you do both at once.
"I suppose it was a surprise when I learned that other people don't read the same text that I do. You write and read through an experiential filter—since I've been a combat soldier, the sequence of words that describes being shot is especially meaningful to me. It would not be as moving to someone who has not been shot. Likewise with love and childbirth and athlete's foot.
"I like different books for different reasons. I think The Hemingway Hoax is the most amusing, and in its way the most intellectually ambitious. The Forever War has made more money than all the others combined, so I have to like it. 1968 was the hardest and most honest, and took more time to write than any other book.
"But I've really only written one book, and I'll keep working on it until the day I die. The individual titles are just chapters in the big book.
"Of course I hope that the world will read my books and renounce war and prejudice and bad food. In reality, I know that memory is finite and reality is not; eventually Shakespeare and Homer will be forgotten. So my books will have a temporary effect, in the ‘I read this guy's book’ sense, and a longer effect in that people who read something act differently because of it, and the people they interact with are affected by their experience.
"Sooner or later the game is up, of course; the Heat Death of the Universe or Christ's Final Gotcha or whatever. All anybody reasonable can hope for is that the world has a little more meaning or complexity or love because you were in it."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Contemporary Literary Criticism, Volume 61, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1990.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 7: Twentieth-Century American Science Fiction Writers, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1981.
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, St. Martin's Press (New York, NY), 1993.
Gordon, Joan, Joe Haldeman, Starmont House (Mercer Island, WA), 1980.
St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1996.
Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, 1975-1991, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1992.
Science Fiction Writers: Critical Studies of the Major Authors from the Early Nineteenth Century to The Present Day, 2nd edition, Scribner (New York, NY), 1999.
Twentieth-Century Science-Fiction Writers, 3rd edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 1991.
Analog Science Fiction and Fact, September 1, 1983, review of There Is No Darkness, p. 164; February 1, 1986, Tom Easton, review of Dealing in Futures: Stories, p. 182; December 1, 1986, Tom Easton, review of Body Armor: 2000, p. 182; May, 2000, Tom Easton, review of Forever Free, p. 132.
Booklist, November 1, 2000, Ray Olson, review of The Coming, p. 492; January 1, 2002, review of Forever Free, p. 832; November 1, 2002, Roland Green, review of Guardian, p. 480; August 1, 2004, Carl Hays, review of Camouflage, p. 1913; August 1, 2005, Regina Schroeder, review of Old Twentieth, p. 2008.
Extrapolation, summer, 1989, "The Long Habit of Writing: Joe Haldeman."
Kirkus Reviews, November 1, 1999, review of Forever Free, p. 1690; May 15, 2004, review of Camouflage, p. 477.
Library Journal, August 1, 1985, review of Dealing in Futures, p. 120; May 15, 1996, Sue Hamburger, review of None So Blind, p. 86; December, 1999, Jackie Cassada, review of Forever Free, p. 192; December, 2000, Jackie Cassada, review of The Coming, p. 196; December, 2002, Jackie Cassada, review of Guardian, p. 185; August 1, 2004, Jackie Cassada, review of Camouflage, p. 72; August 1, 2005, Jackie Cassada, review of Old Twentieth, p. 75.
Los Angeles Times, March 27, 1983, Don Strachan, review of There Is No Darkness, p. 12.
Los Angeles Times Book Review, July 8, 1990, Sue Martin, review of The Hemingway Hoax, p. 9.
Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, March 1, 1994, Kristine Kathryn Rusch, review of Vietnam and Other Alien Worlds, p. 8; October, 2000, Charles De Lint, review of Forever Free, p. 41.
New Scientist, April 10, 1999, review of The Forever War, p. 48.
New York Times Book Review, March 23, 1975, Martin Levin, review of The Forever War, p. 33.
Publishers Weekly, January 7, 1983, review of There Is No Darkness, p. 71; July 5, 1985, Sybil Steinberg, review of Dealing in Futures, p. 58; April 6, 1992, review of Worlds Enough and Time: The Conclusion of the Worlds Trilogy, p. 54; April 22, 1996, review of None So Blind, p. 64; August 25, 1997, review of Forever Peace, p. 49; November 15, 1999, review of Forever Free, p. 59; November 20, 2000, review of The Coming, p. 51; December 2, 2002, review of Guardian, p. 39; June 27, 2005, review of Old Twentieth, p. 46; February 6, 2006, review of War Stories, p. 48.
Science Fiction Studies, July 1, 1994, Joan Gordon, review of Vietnam and Other Alien Worlds, p. 238.
Voice of Youth Advocates, April, 2001, review of The Coming, p. 52.
Washington Post, October 27, 1985, Gregory Feeley, review of Dealing in Futures, p. 6.
Washington Post Book World, December 25, 1983, Charles Platt, review of Worlds Apart, p. 6; July 2, 1995, Marc Leepson, review of 1968: A Novel, p. 4; February 4, 2001, review of The Coming, p. 10.
Joe Haldeman's Tangled Web site, http://home.earthlink.net/˜haldeman (February 19, 2004), Joe Haldeman home page.
Mostly Fiction,http://www.mostlyfiction.com/ (March 17, 2003), Cindy Lynn Speer, review of Guardian.
Science Fiction and Fantasy Books,http://www.sfandf.com/ (February 19, 2004), description of Dogs of War.
Steve and Marta's Web site,http://www.steveandmarta.com/ (February 19, 2004), review of The Twilight Zone: "I of Newton."