Halberstam, David 1934-

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HALBERSTAM, David 1934-

PERSONAL: Born April 10, 1934, in New York, NY; son of Charles A. (a surgeon) and Blanche (a teacher; maiden name, Levy) Halberstam; married; wife's name Elzbieta (an actress), June 13, 1965 (divorced, 1977); married Jean Sandness Butler, June 29, 1979; children: Julia. Education: Harvard University, B.A., 1955. Hobbies and other interests: Reading detective and suspense novels, watching late movies on television, fishing.

ADDRESSES: Home—New York, NY, and Nantucket, MA. Agent—Robert Solomon, 488 Madison Ave. New York, NY 10019.

CAREER: Daily Times Leader, West Point, MS, reporter, 1955-56; Nashville Tennessean, Nashville, TN, reporter, 1956-60; New York Times, New York, NY, staff writer, 1960-67, foreign correspondent in the Congo (now Zaire), 1961-62, Vietnam, 1962-63, Warsaw, Poland, 1965, and Paris, France, 1966; Harper's, New York, NY, contributing editor, 1967-71.

MEMBER: Society of American Historians, Adlai Stevenson Institute of International Affairs (fellow).

AWARDS, HONORS: Page One Award, Newspaper Guild of New York, 1962; George Polk Memorial Award, Long Island University, 1963; Louis M. Lyons Award, 1964; Pulitzer Prize, Columbia University, 1964, for international reporting; Overseas Press Club Award, 1973; Political Book Award, 1986, for TheReckoning; American Book Award, Before Columbus Foundation, 1988, for The Reckoning; Elijah Lovejoy Award, Colby College, 1997; Bob Considine Award from St. Bonaventure College, Robert Kennedy Award, and Robert Melcher Book Award from Unitarian Church, all 1999, all for The Children; various honorary degrees.

WRITINGS:

FICTION

The Noblest Roman, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1961.

(Editor) Stephen Crane, Great Stories of Heroism and Adventure, Platt (New York, NY), 1967.

One Very Hot Day (novel), Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1968.

NONFICTION

The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam During the Kennedy Era, Random House (New York, NY), 1965.

The Unfinished Odyssey of Robert Kennedy, Random House (New York, NY), 1969.

Ho, Random House (New York, NY), 1971.

The Best and the Brightest, Random House (New York, NY), 1972, reprinted with a new foreword by John McCain, Modern Library (New York, NY), 2001.

The Powers That Be, Knopf (New York, NY), 1979.

The Breaks of the Game, Knopf (New York, NY), 1981.

On a Very Hot Day, Warner Books (New York, NY), 1984.

The Amateurs: The Story of Four Young Men and Their Quest for an Olympic Gold Medal, Morrow (New York, NY), 1985.

The Reckoning, Morrow (New York, NY), 1986.

The Summer of '49, Morrow (New York, NY), 1989.

The Next Century, Morrow (New York, NY), 1991.

(Editor) The Best American Sports Writing, 1991, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1991.

The Fifties, Villard (New York, NY), 1993.

October 1964, Villard (New York, NY), 1994.

(Editor) The Kansas Century: One Hundred Years of Championship Jayhawk Basketball, Andrews & McMeel (Kansas City, MO), 1997.

The Children, Random House (New York, NY), 1998.

(Editor) The Best American Sports Writing of the Century, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1999.

Playing for Keeps: Michael Jordan and the World He Made, Random House (New York, NY), 1999.

War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals, Scribner (New York, NY), 2001.

(Author of text) New York September 11: As Seen by Magnum Photographers, PowerHouse Books (New York, NY), 2001.

Firehouse, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2002.

Teammates, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2003.

(Editor) Defining a Nation: Our America and the Sources of Its Strength, National Geographic (Washington, DC), 2003.

Contributor of articles to magazines, including Atlantic Monthly, Esquire, Harper's Bazaar, and McCall's. Columnist for ESPN.com.

WORK IN PROGRESS: A book on the Korean War and a book about the 1958 baseball championship series between the New York Giants and the Baltimore Colts, both for Hyperion.

SIDELIGHTS: David Halberstam's best-selling books are characterized by voluminous research and an anecdotal, novelistic narrative style. Although the subjects he tackles have ranged from the Japanese auto industry to rowers competing to enter the Olympic Games, Halberstam has consistently been attracted by the question of power and to those individuals who are able to influence events in the United States. Three of his best-known books, The Best and the Brightest, The Powers That Be, and The Reckoning, have been described collectively as a trilogy on power in America.

Beginning his career as a war correspondent and political reporter, Halberstam was assigned to South Vietnam by the New York Times in 1962, and his controversial articles often questioned the official version of events in the Vietnam War. In 1964 he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for international reporting, and after that, he continued to examine the war in a series of books and in many magazine articles. In The Best and the Brightest, Halberstam traces American entanglement in Vietnam and criticizes the leaders of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations for this involvement; he also offers biographical studies of the presidents themselves, and of McGeorge Bundy, then-Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, then-Secretary of State Dean Rusk, economist Walt W. Rostow, General Maxwell Taylor, and General William C. Westmoreland.

In The Powers That Be, Halberstam makes the case that the media helped shape recent American politics and society through depictions of the histories of four news reporting giants: Time, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), the Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times. Former CBS correspondent Daniel Schorr, reviewing the book for the Progressive, thought Halberstam showed himself to be squarely on the side of the reporters. Schorr observed, "The price of compelling narrative [in this book] is acceptance of the author's perspective. Halberstam's own experience and feeling inevitably color his story." In an article for Time, Paul Gray also commented on Halberstam's inclusion of personal feeling, remarking that Halberstam, despite his prodigious research, "listens selectively, and at times relentlessly forces his material in the direction he wants it to go. . . . [His] picture is educational but also highly interpretative."

In the New Statesman Godfrey Hodgson expressed disappointment that Halberstam restricted himself to only four opinion-makers. Despite this, Hodgson found Halberstam to be quite readable. "The sheer energy of his infatuation with what he calls power (and I would call influence) carries you along with him," wrote Hodgson. Although questioning the lack of analysis and explanation "of how these empires of the written and the spoken word are held together," the critic admitted, "I lay back, let the tide carry me down the river, took no notice of the mistakes floating past like flotsam, or of the interesting landscapes we were ignoring on the bank, and found myself enjoying it."

In The Breaks of the Game and The Amateurs, Halberstam turns his investigative reporting and characteristic narrative style to the world of sports. The Breaks of the Game examines the gritty world of professional basketball, and The Amateurs looks at top-level rowing among the four men's single sculls who competed for the right to represent the United States in the 1984 Olympics. Halberstam told a New York Times Book Review interviewer that he was upset by the televised 1984 Winter Olympics because of the "hype" involved. He explained that he selected sculling as a subject precisely because the athletes had no expectations of fame or remuneration.

David Guy, writing in the Chicago Tribune Book World, characterized The Amateurs this way: "Halberstam has written a penetrating, fascinating and remarkably suspenseful narrative about one of the last truly non-professional sports in the country, amateur rowing, and in particular about rowing's most prestigious event, the single scull." New York Times reviewer Christopher Lehmann-Haupt noted that the subject of The Amateurs is "the psychology of competitive rowing. It's about the need to drive oneself through various levels of pain if one wants to win at sculling." As in some of his other work, Halberstam enlivens the story with biographical information, in this case offering the biographies of the four competitors. Critiquing the book for the Washington Post Book World, John Jerome noted, "In his usual fashion Halberstam interviews everyone, triangulates every opinion, gets incisive insights and hard judgments even from the oarsmen's mothers. The result is pure reporting on a level undreamt of elsewhere in sports."

With The Reckoning, the final volume in what many view as his trilogy on power in America, Halberstam discusses the history of two automobile makers—Ford in the United States and Nissan in Japan—from World War II to the mid-1980s. Halberstam selected the number-two auto company in each country as his subjects because this approach was journalistically more manageable than writing about the largest and most powerful automakers. John F. Baker, who interviewed Halberstam for Publishers Weekly, described the book as "a study of American arrogance and blindness and Japanese self-sacrifice and tenacity—and [it] is up-to-date enough to register the recent entry on the auto scene of Korea as an unlikely rival to Japan for the rich American market." Halberstam told Baker: "I like to think the book has value as an alarm clock, telling Americans there's something very out of sync with their society." Washington Monthly contributor James Fallows voiced a similar view: "The Reckoning's importance is in helping to shake us out of our complacency."

The Reckoning "does more than scold, however," noted James Flanigan in the Los Angeles Times Book Review. He explained, "One of the book's strengths is its reporting on Japanese recent history, on how a devastated nation became an economic power." In the New York Times, Peter T. Kilborn related that "Halberstam spent five years at this enterprise, and it shows. For all that has been written of the two countries' industrial competition, much of his work is new and telling." Famed economist John Kenneth Galbraith, writing in the New York Times Book Review, called Halberstam's research "formidable," and pointed out that the author persists beyond the exterior of the story: "He seeks out executives, workers and trade unionists and tells of their lives, aspirations, achievements, disappointments, failures and, especially as regards the managers at Ford, of their unending, vanity-inspired and functionally damaging bureaucratic jealousies and infighting."

Some reviewers, though, criticized Halberstam for the unattributed stories that he relates in making his case about the two automakers. Although Fallows praised The Reckoning as "a thorough and engrossing case study" and gave the book a largely positive review, he also thought that the revealing anecdotes and mini-biographies at the heart of Halberstam's work are judgments rather than "truth" and should be presented as such. Fallows likewise noted that "it would be fairer to give the reader some idea of the deduction, interpretation, and yes, guesswork that lie behind the stories." In Chicago's Tribune Books, Peter Collier registered a similar objection: "A nonfiction novelist at heart, Halberstam is somewhat cavalier about documentation. He includes a list of the people he interviewed for the book, but doesn't use footnotes. This is not a pedantic quibble: In a place like Detroit, where everyone has a private agenda and speaks with a sharpened tongue, it is valuable to know who is saying what about whom." But some commentators emphasized that Halberstam's writing style and the scope of his projects lend themselves to taking a distinct critical stance, whether it be to praise or to blame. Nevertheless, Washington Post Book World contributor Robert Kuttner declared, "Like Halberstam's other books, this one is a tour de force of reporting, synthesis and storytelling. Admirers of Halberstam will recognize the familiar formula; his critics will be freshly annoyed by it."

With The Summer of '49 Halberstam once again took up the subject of professional sports, this time major league baseball. He portrays the 1949 American League pennant race, in which the Boston Red Sox suddenly overtook their arch-rivals, the New York Yankees, only to lose the championship in the final game of the season. The story is told through accounts of two opposing baseball heroes: Joe DiMaggio of the Yankees and Ted Williams of the Red Sox. Justin Kaplan, writing in the New York Times Book Review, described the book as "vigorous, altogether engrossing, loaded with dugout insight and wonderful vignettes." In addition to chronicling the pennant race, Halberstam identifies this season as a turning point in baseball—the time in which sport gave way to show business. As Thomas H. Kean noted in the Wall Street Journal, "In the days following World War II, baseball was, as Mr. Halberstam says, 'not so much a sport but a blinding national myth.' It was the way for the children of immigrants to escape and to excel." In summing up Halberstam's achievement, Time magazine's Martha Duffy wrote, "This new work may be his most appealing, mainly because it is quirky and informal, and the author leaves his moral fervor in the bat rack."

In The Next Century, a slim volume that examines America since Vietnam, Halberstam makes a case he has made before: Americans have ignored growing problems such as weakening educational standards and a decline in economic productivity to the detriment of the nation's future. Some critics have pointed out that the book's title is a misnomer since Halberstam examines the twentieth century in great detail, but never quite predicts what the next century will hold. Dan Tucker, reviewing the book in the Chicago Tribune, called The Next Century "an attempt to sort out the main forces at work on American society and the world, and to see in what directions they seem to be pushing us."

The New York Times' Lehmann-Haupt stated, "As one prominent Japanese he [Halberstam] talked to sees it, what America needs is some sort of shock to jar it 'out of its complacency, an event on the order of Sputnik.' The Next Century is far from shock therapy. But by addressing readers intelligently instead of bludgeoning them with dire statistics, it catches the ear." Several critics praised Halberstam for resisting the temptation to blame Japan for its success. Bill Bradley, then a U.S. senator, commented in the New York Times Book Review that The Next Century "is one of the few books to recognize that the challenge facing the United States is not finding a scapegoat for our economic blunders but making the most of our physical and mental capabilities, improving our productivity in an open, democratic structure."

Halberstam examines the political, historical, and sociological perspective of the decade from 1950 to 1960 in his book The Fifties. He discusses events that run the gamut from the politics of the Eisenhower years to the success of the television series I Love Lucy. In a review for the Washington Post, Stephen Birmingham called The Fifties "absorbing" and credited Halberstam with "customary balance and thoroughness." But John Podhoretz, writing in the Wall Street Journal, pointed out that Halberstam's anecdotes about the suburbanization of America and the rise of McDonald's are familiar ones, and he faulted Halberstam for cataloguing events rather than analyzing why the memory of this particular decade holds such appeal for Americans. Podhoretz wrote, "Mr. Halberstam is so intent on avoiding controversy that he cannot and will not take sides in the debate on the meaning of the decade he has written 800 pages about." Chicago Tribune reviewer Herbert Gold voiced a similar objection, but remarked favorably on those sections of the book that investigate less well-known events. Observed Gold: "Chapter 25, about the overthrow of Mossadegh and the installation of the Shah of Iran, has some bite because the story is less familiar. It's a nice and nasty interlude in which we find the aged Winston Churchill congratulating Kermit Roosevelt of the CIA on a well-managed coup."

Halberstam's October 1964 finds the author returning to a memorable baseball season, this time the 1964 season in which the St. Louis Cardinals defeated the New York Yankees to win the World Series. Through colorful vignettes of the two teams' unusually articulate and influential players, Halberstam draws parallels between the events of the 1964 season and the ground-breaking social changes that were affecting every aspect of American culture at the time, from race relations to the contentious Vietnam War to the growing power of the media. In particular, Halberstam focuses on the racial issues that came into play during the season. While the Yankees had long been a dominant force, their aging, mostly white roster stood in stark contrast to that of the upstart Cardinals. Under the direction of cantankerous owner August Busch, the beer magnate, the Cardinals roster included many young black stars: Bob Gibson, Lou Brock, and Curt Flood. Halberstam points out that the integrated Cardinals team was free of racial strife; its victory in the World Series symbolized the sport's transformation from one focused on power and high-scoring innings to one featuring speed and aggressive base running.

Writing in the Los Angeles Times Book Review, Allen Barra remarked that "the overview afforded by October 1964 is splendid." Washington Post Book World contributor Frank Mankiewicz commented that "Halberstam describes the final game of the 1964 series accurately and so dramatically, I almost thought I had forgotten the ending." James E. B. Breslin, however, critiquing for the New York Times Book Review, compared October 1964 unfavorably to The Summer of '49, noting that Halberstam "does not have the intimate emotional connection to the 1964 season that he did to 1949" and as a result "takes only a halfhearted swing at social history," instead concentrating on "individuals who transcend that history." Nevertheless, Breslin termed the book "engaging."

After writing The Children, an award-winning study of young people involved in the civil rights movement in the early 1960s, Halberstam returned to the subject of sports with Playing for Keeps: Michael Jordan and the World He Made, a biography of the man whom some observers consider the greatest pro basketball player ever. "Air Jordan" played for the Chicago Bulls from 1984 to 1999—with a brief detour to attempt a baseball career—and led the Bulls to multiple NBA championships. (He came out of retirement in 2001 to play with the Washington Wizards.) Halberstam chronicles the athlete's success on the basketball court, something due, the author says, not only to Jordan's great natural ability but also to his disciplined efforts; he also explores Jordan's rise as a media star with high-profile commercial endorsements, and seeks to explain Jordan's significance for basketball as a whole.

In the words of New Statesman contributor John Dugdale, "Jordan was a deus ex machina for a sport in a slump when he entered the professional ranks in 1984—so miraculously answering the dreams of hard-boiled businessmen that they could scarcely believe their luck; but also, David Halberstam suggests, himself benefitting as commodity and salesman by arriving just when the smart new NBA commissioner David Stern was revamping basketball's image." Jordan's brilliant playing, good looks, gentlemanly manner, and hard-to-resist charm—evident in his commercials for Nike shoes, McDonald's restaurants, and other consumer products—gave him a sterling public persona, but Halberstam shows there is more to the story, Dugdale and other critics observed. "Jordan emerges simple in essence and ambiguous in context," remarked L. S. Klepp in Entertainment Weekly. "The simple essence is his relentless will to be better than anyone else, to win and win with a vengeance. . . . But for all his devotion to the game, Jordan had a lot to do with the way it veered into tawdry entertainment." Klepp explained that Halberstam's "underlying theme" is that Jordan's role in popularizing pro basketball "didn't corrupt him but did corrupt the sport," and that his successors are unlikely to handle themselves with such grace as he did. Not that Jordan lacks faults: Dugdale reported, "His evident intelligence never extended to political issues"—he was "bewildered" by protests against Nike's use of child labor in developing countries.

Several other reviewers pointed out Halberstam's willingness to deal with all aspects, admirable and less so, of Jordan's character. "Jordan, as drawn by Halberstam, is generous, loyal, thoughtful but flawed," related Ira Berkow in the New York Times Book Review, adding that "he is, Halberstam underscores, no Jackie Robinson, Muhammad Ali or Paul Robeson in the civil rights arena." Berkow praised Halberstam by saying, "He skillfully skirts hagiography and writes as credible reporter." USA Today writer Erik Brady noted that Halberstam's treatment of Jordan "is mostly admiring, though not entirely," and that "Jordan emerges in all his complexity, as do his lessers." Brady termed Playing for Keeps "a meticulously reported book," depicting Jordan and his teammates, coaches, and other associates "in revealing, delicious detail." Dugdale called the book "as ambitious and omnicompetent as its subject" and "much richer than a conventional sports biography." Berkow criticized the book for "an occasional excess of information regarding peripheral aspects of Jordan's life and lapses in which the language is less than carefully or thriftily wrought." He concluded, though, that "Halberstam overall has succeeded in lending perspective to the world Michael Jordan both made and inherited, as well as in portraying Michael Jordan the man and not the icon."

Halberstam left sports for international affairs with War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals. This book examines U.S. foreign policy in the 1990s, as pursued by presidents George Bush and Bill Clinton. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, the United States faced no opposing super-power but dealt with small wars around the world—in Iraq, Bosnia, Somalia, and other places. It was sometimes slow to intervene in these conflicts, though, and unsure of what constituted U.S. interests after the end of the cold war. War in a Time of Peace is designed as a companion to The Best and the Brightest. Many of the political and military leaders of the 1990s—of whom Halberstam provides detailed portrayals in the newer work—had been young adults during the Vietnam War; some had served in it, and it was a haunting memory.

"Still, Halberstam is smart enough to avoid concluding that the memory of Vietnam drove the major military decisions of the Clinton administration or, as it turned out in some cases, the nondecisions," observed Jane Perlez in the New York Times Book Review. New York Times reviewer Richard Bernstein noted that this memory "was a major element in the almost paralyzing caution" of Clinton and his advisers, "but it was far from the only factor. Among the others was the simple fact that George Bush's striking victory against Iraq in the gulf war did not give him much political lift at home, and for the Clinton administration, political lift at home was all important. Meanwhile, the calamity of the Somalia operation, which involved the loss of 18 soldiers in a grisly mob attack in 1993, cast a shadow over all future operations." Halberstam portrays the United States as "groping for a strategy, a vision of what it should do in a turbulent and unsettled post-cold war world to stabilize it at low cost," related Nation contributor Dusko Doder, and finally discovering, during the 1999 Kosovo conflict, "that things in the world could be changed by a minimum, casualty-free application of American air power."

Doder was not wholly convinced by Halberstam's endorsement of this means of warfare. "In making the argument for the use of air power, Halberstam presents a fuzzy account of the collapse of the Bosnian Serbs in 1995," Doder wrote, also maintaining that the book lacks "Halberstam's bone-deep knowledge and refined critical powers that gave his Vietnam book a firm spine of political argument. He does not know the Balkans; as a result, he brings little knowledge or insight gained firsthand." Doder added that in light of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001—which occurred after War in a Time of Peace went to press—and the subsequent war in Afghanistan, "the book's seductive concept that a war can be won by air power alone is now being put to a real test. . . . Given the short American political attention span, the air bombardments in the Balkans could be presented as victories even though they resolved none of the problems on the ground, where U.S. troops continue doing constabulary duty to keep peace in Bosnia and Kosovo. The war against terrorism is something of an entirely different magnitude, and it will engage our attention for a long time." To some other reviewers, though, Halberstam's book retained great relevance after September 11. "Now that foreign affairs have come home to the United States in the most crushing of ways," commented Perlez, "are [Americans] ready to read an account of foreign policy and its makers by one of the most astute writers in the trade? If they want to learn about the past decade, they should. If they want to think seriously about the future, they must." Bernstein granted that "the situation in Afghanistan is different, but it would be difficult to imagine a better, more detailed and informed account of how the country has handled its recent crises than Mr. Halberstam's new book." After the September 11 attacks, Halberstam came out with two books on the tragedy: New York September 11: As Seen by Magnum Photographers, a book of photos from the event accompanied by text by Halberstam, and Firehouse, which is the story of the valiant firefighters who died trying to save lives at the World Trade Center.

In Defining a Nation: Our America and the Sources of Its Strengths, Halberstam enlists thirty-six leading historians and writers to ask why our country "for all its flaws, for all the things I dissent from, remains so powerful a beacon to so many of the less favored of the world." He introduces essays by contributors like Walter Cronkite, Louis Auchincloss, Joan Didion, Anna Quindlen, and Anthony Lewis that define key issues and events that have shaped the American character, from Paul Revere's ride to Margaret Sanger's campaign for birth control. Halberstam explains that he chose immigration, innovation, and egalitarianism as his themes and focuses on the country's last 100 years because until the eve of World War I, America "was still growing in its body." Each contributor illuminates an aspect of America's uniqueness: for Richard Reeves it's the changes wrought by the GI Bill, for Julia Reed it's regional cooking, for Nick Kotz it's farming, for Bill Geist it's cars or, as he puts it, "freedom machines." Halberstam pens essays on inventor Henry Ford and the Civil Rights Movement, two of his favorite subjects.

Whether Halberstam is writing about basketball's Air Jordan or the U.S. military's air power, his books are often best-sellers, even when they receive mixed reviews from critics. His many readers seem to agree with James Fallows's judgment of The Reckoning: "Because the book is so richly detailed, so complete in its coverage, and so readable page-by-page and anecdote-by-anecdote, the complaints about it, which will come, need to take second place to its virtues."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

BOOKS

Downie, Leonard, Jr., The New Muckrakers: An Inside Look at America's Investigative Reporters, New Republic Books (Washington, DC), 1976.

Dygert, James H., The Investigative Journalist: Folk Heroes of a New Era, Prentice-Hall (Englewood Cliffs, NJ), 1976.

Prochnau, William W., Once upon a Distant War, Times Books (New York, NY), 1995.

PERIODICALS

Business Week, October 8, 2001, "Not Halberstam's Best or Brightest," p. 18.

Chicago Tribune, September 27, 1987; February 25, 1991; June 20, 1993.

Chicago Tribune Book World, May 6, 1979; November 15, 1981; July 14, 1985.

Commentary, June, 1999, Joseph Epstein, "He Flew through the Air," p. 46; January, 2002, Jacob Heilbrunn, review of War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals, p. 58.

Entertainment Weekly, February 5, 1999, L. S. Klepp, "The Air up There," p. 62.

Foreign Affairs, November-December, 2001, Michael Hirsh, "America Adrift: Writing the History of the Post Cold Wars," p. 158.

Globe & Mail (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), December 13, 1986; February 16, 1991, p. C7.

Library Journal, October 1, 2001, James R. Holmes, review of War in a Time of Peace, p. 124.

Los Angeles Times Book Review, November 23, 1986, pp. 1, 13; March 31, 1991, p. 6; August 21, 1994, p. 4.

Nation, November 26, 2001, Dusko Doder, "Air Power Politics," p. 22.

National Review, November 5, 2001, Andrew J. Bacevich, "Fog of Wars," p. 62.

New Republic, December 3, 2001, Robert Kagan, "How We Unlearned the Art of War: When America Blinked," p. 29.

New Statesman, May 25, 1973; October 5, 1979; April 3, 2000, John Dugdale, "Fateful Tango," p. 58.

Newsweek, November 20, 1972; April 30, 1979; April 17, 1989.

New York Review of Books, January 25, 1973.

New York Times, April 25, 1979; June 17, 1979; July 18, 1985; October 20, 1986; April 18, 1987; February 11, 1991, p. C14; August 11, 1994, p. C18; January 19, 1999, Michiko Kakutani, "When He Shot, He Scored: Jordan the Man and Athlete," p. E1; October 10, 2001, Richard Bernstein, "A New and Cautious Age in American Intervention," p. E8.

New York Times Book Review, November 12, 1972; April 22, 1979; June 17, 1979; January 10, 1982; August 11, 1985; October 26, 1986, pp. 1, 57-58; May 7, 1989; February 17, 1991, p. 9; August 14, 1994, p. 9; January 31, 1999, Ira Berkow, "Looking Over Jordan," p. 11; September 30, 2001, Jane Perlez, "The 90's Wars," p. 8.

Progressive, January, 1973; July, 1979.

Publishers Weekly, December 11, 1978; October 17, 1986, pp. 44-45; February 14, 1994.

Time, April 30, 1979; November 2, 1981; July 29, 1985; May 22, 1989.

Tribune Books (Chicago, IL), October 5, 1986, pp. 1, 3; April 2, 1989.

USA Today, December 2, 1999, Erik Brady, "Keeps Pumps Fresh Air into Jordan Profile."

Wall Street Journal, June 26, 1989; June 23, 1993.

Washington Monthly, April, 1987, pp. 39-45; September, 2001, Nicholas Thompson, review of War in a Time of Peace, p. 41.

Washington Post, May 9, 1979; June 7, 1979; October 31, 1986.

Washington Post Book World, November 12, 1972; April 22, 1979; November 15, 1981; June 30, 1985, pp. 1, 8; October 19, 1986, pp. 1, 11; March 3, 1991, p. 11-12; May 23, 1993; August 21, 1994, p. 1.*

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