Duncan, Stephen M. 1941-

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Duncan, Stephen M. 1941-

PERSONAL:

Born March 28, 1941, in Oklahoma City, OK; married March 13, 1965; wife's name Luella (died August 26, 1996); children: Kelly, Paige. Education: United States Naval Academy, B.S.; Dartmouth College, M.A.; University of Colorado, J.D.

ADDRESSES:

Office—National Defense University, Institute for Homeland Security Studies, 300 5th Ave., Bldg. 62, Rm. 209A, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, DC 20319-5066. E-mail—[email protected]

CAREER:

Attorney and former Assistant Secretary of Defense. In private practice of law, 1973-1987; Assistant Secretary of Defense in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George Herbert Walker Bush, under Secretaries of Defense Caspar Weinberger, Frank Carlucci, and Dick Cheney, 1987-1993; in the private practice of law in VA, 1993-99. Former Assistant U.S. Attorney for the federal District of Colorado. Member of the bar of CO, VA, DC, various federal courts, and the United States Supreme Court. Former president and chief executive officer of a systems engineering and information technology company providing support to the U.S. Navy's TOMAHAWK Cruise Missile System and the U.S. Air Force's Space-Based Infrared Satellite System. Director of the Institute for Homeland Security Studies at the National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, DC; Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, assistant professor of naval science; distinguished visiting fellow, Institute for National Strategic Studies of the National Defense University; adjunct fellow, Center for Strategic and International Studies. Military service: U.S. Navy, served as deck and watch officer aboard the USS Estes, and as Weapons Officer aboard the USS Carronade during Vietnam conflict; member of Naval Reserve. Awarded Combat Action Ribbon, Navy Commendation Medal with Combat V, Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry (Bronze Star), Navy Unit Commendation, Armed Forces reserve Medal.

AWARDS, HONORS:

Two Medals for Distinguished Public Service, and Joint Meritorious Unit Award, both from Department of Defense.

WRITINGS:

NONFICTION

Citizen Warriors: America's National Guard and Reserve Forces & the Politics of National Security, Presidio (Novato, CA), 1997.

A War of a Different Kind: Military Force and America's Search for Homeland Security, Naval Institute Press (Annapolis, MD), 2004.

SIDELIGHTS:

Stephen M. Duncan served in the United States Navy as an Assistant United States Attorney before being named Assistant Secretary of Defense in the United States government, a position he held under Secretaries of State Caspar Weinberger, Frank Carlucci, and Dick Cheney. Duncan is associated with the Institute for Homeland Security Studies at the National Defense University, a department whose mission is to provide homeland defense education to military and civilian leaders. Duncan's experience also includes working as president and chief executive officer of a systems engineering and information technology company that provided support to key systems in the U.S. defense network, including the TOMAHAWK Cruise Missile System and the Space-Based Infrared Satellite System. Duncan's experiences led him to write the books Citizen Warriors: America's National Guard and Reserve Forces & the Politics of National Security and A War of a Different Kind: Military Force and America's Search for Homeland Security.

Citizen Warriors is divided into two sections. In the first, Duncan provides a detailed description of the way National Guard units were brought into the military actions in the Persian Gulf actions known as Desert Shield and Desert Storm. He notes and explains the reasons that regular army troops tend to resist the use of reservists in combat. Duncan reviews the debate, both public and congressional, that surrounded the use of reservists in the conflict, and details the chain of decisions that eventually opened the way for more than 100,000 reservists to serve in the Persian Gulf. Although many of these troops filled positions in units providing support services, some did see combat, and Duncan praises them for doing their job well. In the second half of the book, the author explains the development of what is known as the "Total Force" military policy, which was begun following the Vietnam War, and the role of the reserves in that policy. Duncan expresses sharp criticism for the Clinton administration, stating that there was no coherent foreign policy formed during Clinton's tenure. Listing thirty-five principles to guide the future use of reserve troops, Duncan explains the reasons he feels it is wrong to use reservists to control inner-city crime, patrol borders, or work cleaning up after natural disasters. Such use of troops, Duncan believes, diminishes their suitability for their real mission—to be combat-ready in case they are needed. "Duncan makes his case cogently and with vigor," commented a reviewer for Publishers Weekly. He also explains his strongly held position that national strategy must dictate decisions about military policy. "His book deserves to be considered by every policymaker" involved in decisions about military troops, according to the Publishers Weekly writer. Roland Green, a reviewer for Booklist, found Duncan's insights "invaluable."

In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, Duncan offered new perspectives on the role of the military and the ways in which the military was affected by September 11. Whereas for years the focus had been on readiness to fight overseas, suddenly there emerged a new need to guard against attacks within the borders of the United States. Fighting isolated terrorist attacks presents very different challenges than fighting a foreign army, and Duncan attempts to sketch out the issues that currently challenge the military and those that will shape its future. The book is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the events of September 11 and how the military responded to them. In the next chapter, Duncan takes a retrospective look at the ways military forces have responded to terrorism in the past. He also levels criticism at the Clinton administration for failing to adequately address the issue of terrorism. In the third chapter, he describes the counterterrorism policy developed by the Bush administration, and in the fourth chapter, he describes actions that have been taken to increase homeland security. The fifth chapter is devoted to the difficulties involved in managing the bureaucracy involved in homeland security. In the second half of the book, the author delves into issues such as the legality of the use of military force in case of terrorist attack, the role of reservists, and the laws of war. One chapter describes the events that led to the Iraq War, and the final chapter discusses issues that are under debate regarding the proper administration of the military, as well as its role in the future.

According to Robert B. Killebrew, a reviewer for Parameters: "The book's reach exceeds its grasp in some ways." Killebrew found that the author tried to cover too much ground in his book, but added: "Used as a companion to other sources, A War of a Different Kind can be a very helpful guide to aspects of the war not commonly described." Among other things, "the author offers insights into legal briefs and Administration strategies that greatly expand the researcher's understanding of backstage maneuvering during the first two years of the war on terror." A War of a Different Kind was praised by Randall J. Larsen in the Joint Force Quarterly, who felt that the author's "superb analysis of this new threat, new battlefield (both at home and abroad), and new challenges, requirements, and missions for the Armed Forces makes this a must-read for all military officers and for those interested in national and homeland security. The book is readable, informative, and thought-provoking and is an invaluable reference tool."

BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:

PERIODICALS

Air Power History, spring, 2006, Stephane Lefebre, review of A War of a Different Kind: Military Force and America's Search for Homeland Security, p. 46.

Aviation Week & Space Technology, July 26, 2004, David Hughes, review of A War of a Different Kind, p. 63.

Booklist, January 1, 1997, Roland Green, review of Citizen Warriors: America's National Guard and Reserve Forces & the Politics of National Security, p. 790.

Canadian Army Journal, summer, 2006, Christopher Spearin, review of A War of a Different Kind, p. 126.

Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, November, 2004, M.A. Morris, review of A War of a Different Kind, p. 564.

Joint Force Quarterly, July, 2005, Randall J. Larsen, review of A War of a Different Kind, p. 112.

Parameters, autumn, 2005, Robert B. Killebrew, review of A War of a Different Kind, p. 150.

Publishers Weekly, November 18, 1996, review of Citizen Warriors, p. 56.

Reference & Research Book News, August, 2004, review of A War of a Different Kind, p. 296.

ONLINE

Duncan Worldwide,http://www.duncanworldwide.com (March 19, 2008), author profile.

North East Book Reviews,http://www.northeastbookreivews.com/ (March 19, 2008) Benet Exton, review of A War of a Different Kind.

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