Cannadine, David 1950–
Cannadine, David 1950–
Born 1950, in England. Education: Clare College, Cambridge, M.A.; St John's College, Oxford, D.Phil.
Office—Institute of Historical Research, University of London, Senate House, Malet St., London WC1E 7HU, England.
St. John's College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, research fellow, 1975-77; Christ's College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, fellow and lecturer in history, 1977-88; Columbia University, New York, NY, professor of history, 1988-98; Institute of Historical Research, University of London, London, England, director, 1998-2003, Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Professor of British History 2003—. Visiting member of Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, 1980-81; visiting professor, Birkbeck College, 1995-97; visiting fellow, Whitney Humanities Center, Yale University, 1995-98. Trustee of National Portrait Gallery and British Empire and Commonwealth Museum.
Institute of English Studies, Institute for Study of the Americas, Institute of Latin American Studies, British Record Society, Worcestershire Historical Society.
T.S. Ashton Prize in Economic History, 1977; Agricultural History Silver Jubilee Prize, 1977; Lionel Trilling Prize, 1991; Governors' Award, 1991; Dean's Distinguished Award in the Humanities, Columbia University, 1996; D.Litt. from University of East Anglia, 2001, South Bank University, 2001, and University of Birmingham, 2002.
Lords and Landlords: The Aristocracy and the Towns, 1774-1967, Leicester University Press (Leicester, England), 1980.
(Editor) Patricians, Power, and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Towns, Leicester University Press (Leicester, England), 1982.
(Editor, with David Reeder) H.J. Dyos, Exploring the Urban Past: Essays in Urban History, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, England), 1982.
(Editor, with Simon Price) Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, England), 1987.
(Editor and author of introduction) Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat: Winston Churchill's Famous Speeches, Houghton Mifflin (Boston, MA), 1989.
(Editor, with A.L. Beier and James M. Rosenheim) The First Modern Society: Essays in English History in Honour of Lawrence Stone, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 1989.
The Pleasures of the Past (essays), W.W. Norton (New York, NY), 1989.
G.M. Trevelyan: A Life in History (biography), HarperCollins (London, England), 1992, W.W. Norton (New York, NY), 1993.
Aspects of Aristocracy: Grandeur and Decline in Modern Britain, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1994.
(Editor, with T.C.W. Blanning) History and Biography: Essays in Honour of Derek Beales, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 1996.
Britain in Decline?, Markham Press Fund of Baylor University Press (Waco, TX), 1998.
History in Our Time, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1998.
The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain, Columbia University Press (New York, NY), 1998.
Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2001.
(Editor) What Is History Now?, Palgrave Macmillan (New York, NY), 2002.
In Churchill's Shadow: Confronting the Past in Modern Britain, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2003.
(Editor) History and the Media, Palgrave Macmillan (New York, NY), 2004.
(Editor, with Roland Quinault) Winston Churchill in the Twenty-first Century, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 2004.
(Editor) Admiral Lord Nelson: Context and Legacy, Palgrave Macmillan (New York, NY), 2005.
(Editor, with A.L. Beier and James M. Rosenheim) The First Modern Society: Essays in English History in Honour of Lawrence Stone, Cambridge University Press (New York, NY), 2005.
The Aristocratic Adventurer, Penguin (London, England), 2005.
(Editor) Trafalgar in History: A Battle and Its Afterlife, Palgrave Macmillan (New York, NY), 2006.
Mellon: An American Life, Knopf (New York, NY), 2006.
Contributor to A Taste for Empire: Studies in British Overseas Expansion, 1660-1800, Variorum (Brookfield, VT), 1997. General editor of "Studies in Modern History" series, 1979—, "Penguin History of Britain" series, 1989—, and "Penguin History of Europe" series, 1991—. Editor of Historical Research, 1998-2003; member of editorial board, Urban History Yearbook, 1979-83, Past and Present, 1983—, Midland History, 1985-88, Rural History, 1995—, Prospect, 1995—, and Library History, 1998—. Contributor of reviews to periodicals, including London Review of Books, New York Review of Books, New York Times Book Review, New Republic, New Yorker, and New Statesman & Society.
British historian David Cannadine has written and edited several well-received books on the history of his native Great Britain, such as The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy and The Pleasures of the Past. His biography of early twentieth-century English historian George Macaulay Trevelyan, titled G.M. Trevelyan: A Life in History, has also been widely praised. In addition to the acclaim resulting from his own historical works, Cannadine is widely respected as a literary critic, contributing reviews to such periodicals as the London Review of Books, New York Times Book Review, and New York Review of Books. Commenting on Cannadine's skills as a critic, Edward Hower in the New York Times Book Review declared that "Cannadine knows just how to get to the heart of the book and reveal it to us with wit and eloquence."
Cannadine's first published book was Lords and Landlords: The Aristocracy and the Towns, 1774-1967. In this work, Cannadine explores the growth of certain English towns associated with aristocratic families, in particular Edgbaston and Eastbourne. The former, according to Cannadine, was developed in a very hands-on manner by the succeeding Lords Calthorpe, while the latter was controlled more by its tenants, on land first owned by the Duke of Devonshire. Cannadine explains that though the methods of development differed, the results were similar—both towns developed into exclusive areas, catering to the upper and upper-middle classes. J.D. Marshall, critiquing Lords and Landlords in the American Historical Review, hailed it as "an outstanding book," noting that "few published writers on British towns and cities have approached their topics with Cannadine's thoroughness and imagination." F.M.L. Thompson in the Times Literary Supplement remarked that the volume is "a journey both enjoyable and rewarding, and one which gives us fresh insights into the shaping of the urban environment." Cannadine followed up Lords and Landlords by editing two books on related subjects. He collaborated with David Reeder in editing some of the essays of British urban history pioneer H.J. Dyos, and edited another collection, Patricians, Power, and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Towns.
Another example of Cannadine's work as an editor came with his 1987 collaboration with Simon Price, Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. The essays contained in this volume explore the purpose of ceremonies and customs ranging from ancient Babylonian coronation to Imperial Roman funerals to the formal annual bath of the King of Madagascar during the nineteenth century. "Fascinating studies," observed Rodney Hilton in the London Review of Books. "Such a diverse collection of essays on so rich a subject can only be welcomed," maintained a reviewer for Times Literary Supplement, who concluded: "The only regret is that David Cannadine, having written an excellent introduction, has not included an essay by himself in the book."
In 1989 Cannadine published The Pleasures of the Past, a collection of his own book reviews written for the London Review of Books and the New York Review of Books. In addition, The Pleasures of the Past contains Cannadine's insights on topics such as royalty, various notable historical figures, the aristocracy, British social history, sex, and food. Richard Davenport-Hines explained in the Times Literary Supplement that Cannadine's "aim" in the work "is to catch the attention of general readers without sacrificing historical context to stylishness, always placing individuals and incidents within broader historical trends and meanings." Davenport-Hines went on to applaud Cannadine's "witty, sceptical and fair-minded treatment of his subjects," calling the work "unfailing in its interest." "There is everything to be said for a book," wrote Owen Dudley Edwards in New Statesman & Society, "which wears profound learning not so much lightly as laughingly." Benjamin Kilborne concluded in the Los Angeles Times Book Review that the essays in The Pleasures of the Past "are eminently readable, well conceived and satisfyingly trenchant."
The following year, The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy—perhaps Cannadine's best-known work—became available to readers. As the title promises, this book asserts that the nobility and landed gentry in Great Britain have suffered a severe loss of political and social power that began in the 1880s. Reasons for this phenomenon are examined, and examples and exceptions of aristocratic families and individuals are discussed. The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy was widely praised by critics, though some felt Cannadine showed an anti-aristocratic bias in the work. Conrad Russell in the Times Literary Supplement especially praised the breadth of the book: "It is a genuine contribution to the growth of British, as distinct from English history, and some of its best passages concern the effect of the long anti-landlord agitation in Ireland on the position of landlords in other parts of the United Kingdom." W.D. Rubinstein, reviewing The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy in the Journal of Modern History, affirmed that "Cannadine has assuredly written one of the most significant and impressive works on modern British history of the present generation and has added to his reputation as one of the most talented and perceptive of the younger historians of modern Britain. There is nothing quite like it." "Altogether, this is an immense work of learning, whose focus on such objectivities as land and money does not impede the flow of anecdote, or dim the author's powers as a social psychologist," wrote Anthony Burgess in the Atlantic Monthly. "He writes a brisk prose, and knows when to turn an old phrase; thus he says that some will find his a sad story and others a morality play about ‘vested interests vanquished.’" In the New York Times Book Review, Robert Blake hailed the work as "a long, learned and highly readable account of a change in British social history that has never been so fully charted before," and went on to predict that Cannadine's "brilliant, multifaceted chronicle of economic and social change … is unlikely to be superseded for many years to come."
In G.M. Trevelyan, part of Cannadine's purpose was to rehabilitate the reputation of his subject, a historian who was greatly revered in his time, but whose works have been criticized in more recent years as liberally biased and not as technically precise as those of more modern historians. Critics have argued over whether Cannadine has succeeded in this goal, but most agreed with his urging that Trevelyan be re-examined in the light of his own period and social class. In the course of his biography, Cannadine also discusses Trevelyan's more famous books, such as England under Queen Anne and English Social History, as well as his biography of Italian leader Giuseppe Garibaldi. Blair Worden, critiquing G.M. Trevelyan in the New York Review of Books, labeled it an "eloquent study" and confirmed that "the portrait of Trevelyan, a portrait that brings to life not only the man but the phase of English history and culture to which he belonged … is the real achievement of this remarkable book." A.N. Wilson in the New York Times Book Review found an even greater meaning in Cannadine's effort to connect Trevelyan with his own times: "I do not mind admitting that I finished Mr. Cannadine's book in tears," she confessed. "I wonder if an American audience will understand it: the extent of what we English have lost, and the way in which this great historian's life forces home that loss upon the reader."
In response to requests for a follow-up to The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy, Cannadine published Aspects of Aristocracy: Grandeur and Decline in Modern Britain in 1994. This volume contains information on individuals and families of the nobility in times both previous to and after the period of the earlier book. As William Buchan put it in the Spectator, Aspects of Aristocracy "is a collection of nine essays on three related themes. All the essays deal with ‘aspects of aristocracy’ touched on in the earlier book; nearly all are marked by the same extensive research and the same light-handed, usually objective and sometimes dryly amusing style." Though Jonathan Parry in the London Review of Books conceded that none of the individuals discussed in the tome "is treated altogether unsympathetically," he maintained that "few historians bring more energy and relish to chronicling the shortcomings of titled or famous people." Piers Brendon concluded in the New Statesman & Society that the essays in Aspects of Aristocracy "confirm Cannadine as one of the brightest historians of his age."
Cannadine's History in Our Time, focuses on nineteenth- and twentieth-century Britain. Many of these pieces first appeared as book reviews in the various journals for which Cannadine writes. "In these reviews of other historians' books, David Cannadine works a provocative series of transformations," according to Allen D. Boyer in the New York Times Book Review. Boyer further pointed out that these pieces work by "taking new angles, amplifying themes and giving [Cannadine's] own acerbic voice the final word." Ten of the essays in the book focus on the British monarchy, and Boyer felt that these essays, as well as those dealing with topics from Florence Nightingale to the English fascist Oswald Mosley, display Cannadine's "range as a historian and his skills as a working critic." Reviewing the collection of essays in Booklist, Jay Freeman found them "absorbing, frequently humorous, and always enlightening," and a contributor for Publishers Weekly dubbed the collection an "entertaining read for those interested in the history of Britain over the past 100 years."
"Class in Britain is David Cannadine's favorite subject," as Ian Buruma pointed out in the New Republic, and the author returns to this subject in The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain and Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire. "Engaging, provocative, and ambitious" is how James E. Cronin described The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain in the Journal of Social History. The book is something of a distant cousin to his popular earlier works, chronicling aspects of social status and hierarchy over time as played out against a backdrop of increasing social equality. Covering the past three centuries of social history in England, "this richly documented study is concerned not so much with class today as with the emergence of class as a social category," wrote Paul S. Seaver in a New York Times review of The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain. Cannadine proposes that three models of class have existed in British thought over recent centuries: the first posits the class war of rich versus poor; the second divides society into three sections, working, middle, and upper classes; the third is something of a seamless hierarchy of social relations built on individuals rather than strict observance of class. Using detailed research, Cannadine then traces each of these models from the eighteenth century to today, examining how each model has served history and also looking at how attitudes toward class have changed over the centuries. "Ultimately," wrote a critic for Publishers Weekly, "Cannadine shows that all three models are valid to some degree but that none can claim to represent the rock-bottom truth," though the third enjoys the most widespread belief in modern Britain. The Publishers Weekly reviewer concluded that Cannadine's book "is a joy to read." Likewise, Carolyn A. Conley, writing in Historian, found the book to be "lively and cogent," while Nancy Lopatin, reviewing the title in the Journal of Modern History, remarked that Cannadine "offers a new approach to class and its applications in the historical literature."
With Ornamentalism, Cannadine's class vision is cast toward empire, and to how the British in fact viewed their own empire and those they ruled. Cannadine argues in the book that Britain and British history from the eighteenth century on were very much products of its empire—both its rise and its decline. Cannadine also presents British attitudes toward this empire, contending that, far from being ruled by a sense of race, it was class that mattered. In this reading, as Buruma noted, "Class, status, and rank were more important that skin color, the shape of one's eyes, or the dimensions of one's skull." Thus a sultan or the king of Hawaii would be considered "one of us" by the British upper classes, while someone in the trades from Manchester—though white—would not be. Cannadine traces his story from the days of the British Raj in India to the hand-over of Hong Kong in 1997, using as a leading theme his premise of class over race. "That perhaps is the book's main weakness," wrote Bernard Porter in the Times Literary Supplement, "that it goes on with a simple idea too long." For Porter, Cannadine's book "would have made a provocative article." Yet other critics, such as Philip Ziegler in the Spectator, found the work to be "vigorous" and "stimulating." And reviewing the title in New Statesman & Society, Kenan Malik noted: "In Ornamentalism, David Cannadine provides a welcome challenge to … academic orthodoxy through rethinking British perceptions of its empire."
In Churchill's Shadow: Confronting the Past in Modern Britain, a collection of twelve previously published essays on British history, examines the legacy of Prime Minister Winston Churchill and the decline of the British empire. "Since Cannadine believes that Rule Britannia is gone and Cool Britannia is no substitute, he carefully analyzes Britain's past and does not dismiss it," noted John W. Osborne in Clio. "Cannadine considers Churchill's long career as an attempt to preserve his country's late Victorian strength and influence and concludes that these efforts may have slowed national decline but did not halt it." In one essay, "The Voice of Destiny," Cannadine looks at the development of Churchill's famed oratory skills. "If, between Dunkirk and El Alamein, Britain saved the world by her lonely example, then Churchill saved his country by his rhetorical exertions," wrote Anthony Howard in New Statesman & Society. "Yet his story remains a sad one. Virtually everything he sought to uphold and defend has turned to dust."
Cannadine's essays cover a wide variety of subjects, including nineteenth-century composers Gilbert and Sullivan, the National Trust, James Bond creator Ian Fleming, American historian H.B. Merriman, and the career of actor, playwright, and composer Noel Coward. "Britain's adjustment to its diminishing power and to the loss of empire is a recurring theme in Mr. Cannadine's essays," observed a contributor in the Economist. "It is this that provides the sometimes thin connecting thread between the various topics in the book. For unlike many celebrators of Churchill, Mr. Cannadine is less interested in victory and heroic defiance than in Britain's reactions to its declining power." "A historian himself, Churchill's life was shaped by the lessons of the past," Osborne wrote. "History, not focus groups, provided inspiration and guidance for action. For Churchill, Britain's past, present, and future were joined in a symbiotic relationship. Cannadine understands this and well describes the central figure in this book."
In Mellon: An American Life, Cannadine profiles banking mogul, politician, and philanthropist Andrew Mellon, who served as Secretary of the Treasury from 1921 until 1932 and founded the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC. Born in 1855 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylva- nia, Mellon demonstrated an extraordinary aptitude for business at an early age, starting his own lumber company at seventeen. The son of Thomas Mellon, a stern, humorless man who greatly influenced his son's character, he began working at his father's bank in 1872 and took control of the firm just ten years later. Mellon helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh and branched into a number of industrial activities, amassing fortunes in oil and steel and presiding over a business empire that included Alcoa, Gulf Oil, and the Carborundum Company. At age forty-three, he entered an ill-advised marriage to Nora McMullen, a British girl more than twenty years his junior; the union ended in an acrimonious divorce. As Treasury secretary, Mellon served under Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover, overseeing both the financial boom of the Roaring Twenties and the stock market crash of 1929 that led to the Great Depression. Mellon later endured accusations of fraud from Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal reformers as he attempted to create the National Gallery; he died in 1937, just before his name was cleared.
According to New York Times contributor Roger Lowenstein, Mellon is "a sprawling work for a sprawling life." The critic continued: "It is also a compelling portrait of a dour and lonely financier who was wounded in love, disappointed in his children and, tragically, ill-rewarded by his government." "Cannadine's imposing biography reveals Mellon to have been a complex and flawed man, who although eminently successful in business was a discernible failure in personal relationships," observed Spectator critic Christopher Ondaatje. Writing in New Statesman & Society, Mark Bearn offered a similar assessment, stating: "Cannadine has indeed written an exemplary ‘American life,’ a depressing chronicle of the corrupting consequences of a life dedicated to the pursuit of money and power. Mellon's life in this telling is a cautionary tale, an indictment of a particular kind of American capitalism and American beliefs that have resurfaced again after 60 years in abeyance. It deserves our attention."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
American Historical Review, April, 1982, J.D. Marshall, review of Lords and Landlords: The Aristocracy and the Towns, 1774-1967 pp. 454-455.
Atlantic Monthly, February, 1991, Anthony Burgess, review of The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy, p. 85; November 21, 2001, Benjamin Schwartz, "A Bit of Bunting," pp. 127-132.
Booklist, October 1, 1998, Jay Freeman, review of History in Our Time, p. 305; October 15, 2006, Jay Freeman, review of Mellon: An American Life, p. 22.
Canadian Journal of History, December, 2004, Ian K. Steele, "Where Is History Heading," review of What Is History Now?, p. 547.
Chronicle of Philanthropy, October 12, 2006, Anne W. Howard, "A Biography of an Industrialist and Philanthropist From Pittsburgh," review of Mellon.
Clio, fall, 2003, John W. Osbourne, review of In Churchill's Shadow: Confronting the Past in Modern Britain, p. 103.
Contemporary Review, July, 2001, review of Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire, p. 59.
Economist, August 17, 2002, "In Love with Decline," review of In Churchill's Shadow; October 28, 2006, "Made It, Bought It, Ran It, Gave It," review of Mellon.
Financial Times, August 31, 2002, Ben Rogers, "Puttin' on My Top Hat …," review of In Churchill's Shadow, p. 4.
Historian, summer, 2000, Carolyn A. Conley, review of The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain, p. 908.
History, spring, 2003, Claude Ury, review of What Is History Now?, p. 129.
History Today, October, 1998, Daniel Snowman, "David Cannadine"; February, 1999, p. 52; May, 2001, review of Ornamentalism, p. 12; August, 2004, Daniel Snowman, review of History and the Media, p. 59; May, 2005, "Nelson and Napoleon," review of Admiral Lord Nelson: Context and Legacy, p. 73.
Journal of Contemporary History, April, 2000, Jon Lawrence, "The British Sense of Class," pp. 307-318.
Journal of Modern History, June, 1992, W.D. Rubinstein, review of The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy, pp. 393-397; September, 2000, Nancy Lopatin, review of The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain, p. 790.
Journal of Social History, spring, 2000, James E. Cronin, review of The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain; spring, 2004, Doug Munro, review of What Is History Now?, p. 814.
Kirkus Reviews, October 15, 2002, review of In Churchill's Shadow, p. 1512; August 1, 2006, review of Mellon, p. 762.
Library Journal, August, 2001, Isabel Coates, review of Ornamentalism, p. 130; October 1, 2006, Mary C. Allen, review of Mellon, p. 85.
London Review of Books, January 21, 1988, Rodney Hilton, review of Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies, pp. 21-22; June 9, 1994, Jonathan Parry, review of Aspects of Aristocracy: Grandeur and Decline in Modern Britain, pp. 15-17.
Los Angeles Times Book Review, October 8, 1989, Benjamin Kilborne, review of The Pleasures of the Past, p. 6.
New Republic, September 24, 2001, Ian Buruma, "Class Acts," pp. 37-39.
New Statesman & Society, March 23, 1989, Owen Dudley Edwards, review of The Pleasures of the Past, p. 38; April 15, 1994, Piers Brendon, review of Aspects of Aristocracy, pp. 36-37; June 19, 2000, Andrew Martin, "Among the Proles," p. 55; May 7, 2001, Kenan Malik, "Why the Victorians Were Color Blind," pp. 48-49; August 19, 2002, Anthony Howard, "Walking with Destiny," review of In Churchill's Shadow, p. 35; December 11, 2006, Mark Bearn, "Living the Dream," review of Mellon, p. 56.
New Yorker, September 24, 2001, review of Ornamentalism, p. 93.
New York Review of Books, July 15, 1993, Blair Worden, review of G.M. Trevelyan: A Life in History, pp. 9-14.
New York Times, March 28, 1999, Paul S. Seaver, review of The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain; November 19, 2006, Roger Lowenstein, "The Sprawling Life of a Lonely Financier," review of Mellon, p. BU6.
New York Times Book Review, November 19, 1989, Edward Hower, review of The Pleasures of the Past, p. 11; November 4, 1990, Robert Blake, review of The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy, p. 13; May 30, 1993, A.N. Wilson, review of G.M. Trevelyan, p. 6; November 22, 1998, Allen D. Boyer, review of History in Our Time, p. 27; November 6, 2005, Richard Parker, "Pittsburgh Pirates," review of Mellon, p. 10.
Publishers Weekly, October 26, 1998, review of History in Our Time, p. 51; December 21, 1998, review of The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain, p. 46; November 25, 2002, review of In Churchill's Shadow, p. 52.
Reference & Research Book News, February, 2006, review of Admiral Lord Nelson.
Spectator, April 16, 1994, William Buchan, review of Aspects of Aristocracy, pp. 34-35; April 14, 2001, Philip Ziegler, review of Ornamentalism, p. 30; December 2, 2006, Christopher Ondaatje, "American Midas and Maecenas," review of Mellon; August 7, 2004, Nigel Spivey, "The Past as Good Restaurant," review of History and the Media, p. 32.
Times Literary Supplement, February 20, 1981, F.M.L. Thompson, review of Lords and Landlords, p. 211; April 21, 1989, Richard Davenport-Hines, review of The Pleasures of the Past, p. 432; October 19, 1990, Conrad Russell, review of The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy, pp. 1123-1124; November 13, 1992, review of Rituals of Royalty, p. 28; May 4, 2001, Bernard Porter, "Plumes on a Cocked Hat," p. 18.
Humanities and Social Sciences Online,http://www.h-net.org/ (May 20, 2007), Stephen L. Keck, review of History in Our Time; (May 20, 2007), Gerhard Altmann, review of Ornamentalism; (May 20, 2007), Timothy Jenks, review of Admiral Lord Nelson.