Haydn, (Franz) Joseph
Haydn, (Franz) Joseph
Haydn, (Franz) Joseph, great Austrian composer who was a master of the Classical style; b. Rohrau, Lower Austria, probably March 31, 1732 (baptized, April 1, 1732); d. Vienna, May 31, 1809. He was the 2nd of 12 children born to Mathias Haydn, a wheelwright, who served as village sexton, and Anna Maria Koller, daughter of the market inspector and a former cook in the household of Count Harrach, lord of the village. Their 2nd son, Michael, also became a musician. On Sundays and holidays music was performed at home, the father accompanying the voices on the harp, which he had learned to play by ear. When Haydn was a small child his paternal cousin Johann Mathias Franck, a choral director, took him to Hainburg, where he gave him instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, and instrumental playing. When Haydn was 8 years old, Karl Georg Reutter, Kapellmeister at St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna, engaged him as a soprano in the chorus. After his voice began to break, he moved to the household of Johann Michael Spangler, a music teacher. He obtained a loan of 150 florins from Anton Buchholz, a friend of his father’s, and was able to rent an attic room where he could use a harpsichord. In the same house lived the famous Italian poet and opera librettist Pietro Metastasio, who recommended Haydn to a resident Spanish family as a music tutor. He was also engaged as accompanist to students of Nicolò Porpora, for whom he performed various menial tasks in exchange for composition lessons. He made a diligent study of Gradus ad Parnassum by Fux and Der vollkommen Capellmeister by Mattheson. Soon he began to compose keyboard music. In 1751 he wrote the Sing-spiel Der krumme Teufel A noblewoman, Countess Thun, engaged him as harpsichordist and singing teacher; he met Karl Joseph von Fürnburg, for whom he wrote his first string quartets. In 1759 Haydn was engaged by Count Ferdinand Maximilian von Morzin as Kapellmeister at his estate in Lukaveč. On Nov. 26, 1760, he married Maria Anna Keller, the eldest daughter of his early benefactor, a Viennese wigmaker.
A decided turn in Haydn’s life was his meeting with Prince Paul Anton Esterházy. Esterházy had heard one of Haydn’s syms. during a visit to Lukaveč, and engaged him to enter his service as 2nd Kapellmeister at his estate in Eisenstadt; Haydn signed his contract with Esterházy on May 1, 1761. Prince Paul Anton died in 1762, and his brother, Prince Nikolaus Esterházy, known as the “Magnificent,” succeeded him. He took Haydn to his new palace at Esterháza, where Haydn was to provide 2 weekly operatic performances and 2 formal concerts. Haydn’s service at Esterháza was long-lasting, secure, and fruitful; there he composed music of all descriptions, including most of his known string quartets, about 80 of his 104 syms., a number of keyboard works, and nearly all his operas; in 1766 he was elevated to the rank of 1st Kapellmeister. Prince Nikolaus Esterházy was a cultural patron of the arts, but he was also a stern taskmaster in his relationship with his employees. His contract with Haydn stipulated that each commissioned work had to be performed without delay, and that such a work should not be copied for use by others. Haydn was to present himself in the “antichambre” of the palace each morning and afternoon to receive the Prince’s orders, and he was obliged to wear formal clothes, with white hose and a powdered wig with a pigtail or a hairbag; he was to have his meals with the other musicians and house servants. In particular, Haydn was obligated to write pieces that could be performed on the baryton, an instrument which the Prince could play; in consequence, Haydn wrote numerous pieces for the baryton. He also wrote 3 sets of 6 string quartets each (opp. 9, 17, and 20), which were brought out in 1771-72. His noteworthy syms. included No. 49, in F minor, La passione; No. 44, in E minor, known as the Trauersinfonie; No. 45, in F-sharp minor; and the famous Abschiedsinfonie (the Farewell Sym.), performed by Haydn at Esterháza in 1772. The last movement of the Farewell Sym. ends in a long slow section during which one musician after another ceases to play and leaves the stage, until only the conductor and a single violinist remain to complete the work. The traditional explanation is that Haydn used the charade to suggest to the Prince that his musicians deserved a vacation after their arduous labors, but another and much more plausible version, found in Anedotti piacevoli ed interessanti, publ, in 1830 by G. G. Ferrari, who personally knew Haydn, is that the Prince had decided to disband the orch. and that Haydn wished to impress on him the sadness of such a decision; the known result was that the orch. was retained. In 1780 Haydn was elected a member of the Modena Phil. Soc; in 1784 Prince Henry of Prussia sent him a gold medal; in 1785 he was commissioned to write a “passione instrumentale,” The 7 Last Words, for the Cathedral of Cadiz; in 1787 King Friedrich Wilhelm II gave him a diamond ring; many other distinctions were conferred upon him. During his visits to Vienna he formed a close friendship with Mozart, who was nearly a quarter of a century younger, and for whose genius Haydn had great admiration. If the words of Mozart’s father can be taken literally, Haydn told him that Mozart was “the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name.” Mozart reciprocated Haydn’s regard for him by dedicating to him a set of 6 string quartets. Prince Nikolaus Esterházy died in 1790, and his son Paul Anton (named after his uncle) inherited the estate. After he disbanded the orch., Haydn was granted an annuity of 1, 000 florins; nominally he remained in the service of the new Prince as Kapellmeister, but he took up permanent residence in Vienna.
In 1790 Johann Peter Salomon, the enterprising London impresario, visited Haydn and persuaded him to travel to London for a series of concerts. Haydn accepted the offer, arriving in London on Jan. 1, 1791. On March 11 of that year he appeared in his first London concert in the Hanover Square Rooms, presiding at the keyboard. Haydn was greatly feted in London by the nobility; the King himself expressed his admiration for Haydn’s art. In July 1791 he went to Oxford to receive the honorary degree of Mus.D. For this occasion, he submitted his Sym. No. 92, in G major, which became known as the Oxford Sym.; he composed a 3-part canon, Thy Voice, O Harmony, Is Divine, as his exercise piece. It was also in England that he wrote his Sym. No. 94, in G major, the Surprise Sym. The surprise of the title was provided by the loud drum strokes at the end of the main theme in the slow movement; the story went that Haydn introduced the drum strokes with the sly intention of awakening the London dowagers, who were apt to doze off at a concert. On his journey back to Vienna in the summer of 1792 Haydn stopped in Bonn, where young Beethoven showed him some of his works, and Haydn agreed to accept him later as his student in Vienna. In 1794 Haydn went to London once more. His first concert, on Feb. 10, 1794, met with great success. His London syms., also known as the Salomon syms., because Haydn wrote them at Salomon’s request, were 12 in number, and they included No. 99, in E-flat major; No. 100, in G major, known as the Military Sym.; No. 101, in D major, nicknamed The Clock because of its pendulum-like rhythmic accompanying figure; No. 102, in B-flat major; No. 103, in E-flat major, known as the Drum Roll Sym.; and No. 104, in D major. A philatelic note: Haydn sent the MS of his oratorio The Creation to Salomon in London for its first performance there. The package was delivered on March 23, 1800, by stagecoach and sailboat from Vienna, and the postage was £30 16s. Od., a sum equal to £650 today, c.$l,000. In 1800 this sum was enough to buy a horse, or to pay the living expenses for a family of 4 for a year.
Returning to Vienna, Haydn resumed his contact with the Esterházy family. In 1794 Prince Paul Anton died and was succeeded by his son Nikolaus; the new Prince revived the orch. at Eisenstadt, with Haydn again as Kapellmeister. Conforming to the new requirements of Prince Nikolaus, Haydn turned to works for the church, including 6 masses. His Mass in C major was entitled Missa in tempore belli (1796), for it was composed during Napoleon’s drive toward Vienna. The 2nd Mass, in B-flat major, the Heiligmesse, also dates from 1796. In 1798 he composed the 3rd Mass, in D minor, which is often called the Nelsonmesse, with reference to Lord Nelson’s defeat of Napoleon’s army at the Battle of the Nile. The 4th Mass, in B-flat major (1799), is called the Theresienmesse, in honor of the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa. The 5th Mass, in B-flat major, written in 1801, is known as the Schöpfungsmesse, for it contains a theme from the oratorio Die Schöpfung (The Creation). The 6th Mass, in B-flat major (1802), is referred to as the Harmoniemesse, for its extensive use of wind instruments; the word “harmonie” is here used in the French meaning, as the wind instrument section. Between 1796 and 1798 Haydn composed his great oratorio Die Schöpfung, which was first performed at a private concert for the nobility at the Schwarzenburg Palace in Vienna on April 29, 1798. In 1796 he wrote the Concerto in E-flat major for Trumpet, which became a standard piece for trumpet players. In 1797 Haydn was instructed by the Court to compose a hymn-tune of a solemn nature that could be used as the national Austrian anthem. He succeeded triumphantly in this task; he made use of this tune as a theme of a set of variations in his String Quartet in C major, op.76, no. 3, which itself became known as the Emperor Quartet. The original text for the hymn, written by Lorenz Leopold Haschka, began “Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser.” This hymn had a curious history: a new set of words was written by August Heinrich Hoffmann during a period of revolutionary disturbances in Germany preceding the general European revolution of 1848; its first line, “Deutschland, Deutschland uber alles,” later assumed the significance of German imperialism; in its original it meant merely, “Germany above all (in our hearts).” Between 1799 and 1801 Haydn completed the oratorio Die Jahreszeiten; its text was tr. into German from James Thomson’s poem The Seasons. It was first performed at the Schwarzenburg Palace in Vienna on April 24, 1801. In 1802, beset by illness, Haydn resigned as Kapellmeister to Prince Nikolaus.
Despite his gradually increasing debility, Haydn preserved the saving grace of his natural humor; in response to the many salutations of his friends, he sent around a quotation from his old song Der Alte, confessing his bodily weakness. Another amusing musical jest was Haydn’s reply to a society lady who identified herself at a Vienna party as a person to whom Haydn had dedicated a lively tune ascending on the major scale; she sang it for him, and he replied wistfully that the tune was now more appropriate in an inversion. Haydn made his last public appearance at a concert given in his honor in the Great Hall of the Univ. of Vienna on March 27, 1808, with Salieri conducting Die Schöpfung. When Vienna capitulated to Napoleon, he ordered a guard of honor to be placed at Haydn’s residence. Haydn died on May 31, 1809, and was buried at the Hundsturm Cemetery. In consequence of some fantastic events, his skull became separated from his body before his reinterment at Eisenstadt in 1820; it was actually exhibited under glass in the hall of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna for a number of years, before being reunited with his body in the Bergkirche in Eisenstadt on June 5, 1954, in a solemn official ceremony.
Haydn was often called “Papa Haydn” by his intimates in appreciation of his invariable good humor and amiable disposition. Ironically, he never became a papa in the actual sense of the word. His marriage was unsuccessful; his wife was a veritable termagant; indeed, Haydn was separated from her for most of his life. Still, he corresponded with her and sent her money, even though, according to a contemporary report, he never opened her letters.
In schoolbooks Haydn is usually described as “father of the symphony,” the creator of the classical form of the sym. and string quartet. Historically, this absolute formulation cannot be sustained; the symphonic form was established by Stamitz and his associates at the Mannheim School; the string quartet was of an even earlier provenance. But Haydn’s music was not limited to formal novelty; its greatness was revealed in the variety of moods, the excellence of variations, and the contrast among the constituent movements of a sym.; string quartets, as conceived by Haydn, were diminutions of the sym.; both were set in sonata form, consisting of 3 contrasting movements, Allegro, Andante, Allegro, with a Minuet interpolated between the last 2 movements. It is the quality of invention that places Haydn above his contemporaries and makes his music a model of classical composition. A theory has been put forward that Haydn’s themes were derived from the folk melodies of Croatian origin that he had heard in the rural environment of his childhood, but no such adumbrations or similarities can be convincingly proved.
The intimate Volkstümlichkeit, a popular impressiveness of Haydn’s music, naturally lent itself to imaginative nicknames of individual compositions. There are among his syms. such appellations as Der Philosoph and Der Schulmeister; some were titled after animals: L’Ours and La Poule; others derived their names from the character of the main theme, as in The Clock, the Surprise, and the Drum Roll. Among Haydn’s string quartets are La Chasse, so named because of the hunting horn fanfares; the Vogelquartett, in which one hears an imitation of birdcalls; the Froschquartett, which seems to invoke a similarity with frog calls in the finale; and the Lerchenquartett, containing a suggestion of a lark call. The famous Toy Sym., scored for an ensemble which includes the rattle, the triangle, and instruments imitating the quail, cuckoo, and nightingale, was long attributed to Haydn but is actually a movement of a work by Leopold Mozart.
Haydn played a historic role in the evolution of functional harmony by adopting 4-part writing as a fundamental principle of composition, particularly in his string quartets. This practice has also exercised a profound influence on the teaching of music theory.
The precise extent of Haydn’s vast output will probably never be known. Many works are lost; others, listed in various catalogs, may never have existed or were duplications of extant works; some are of doubtful authenticity, and some are definitely spurious. The following list of his works attempts to be comprehensive in scope, but it is not an exhaustive compilation.
dramatic:Der krumme Teufel, Singspiel (1751?; 1st confirmed perf., Vienna, May 29, 1753; not extant); Der neue krumme Teufel (Asmodeus, der krumme Teufel), Singspiel (1758?; music not extant); Acide, festa teatrale (1762; Eisenstadt, Jan. 11, 1763; only fragment and libretto extant; rev. version, 1773; only fragment extant); Marchese (La Marchesa Nespola), comedia (1762?; only fragment extant; dialogues not extant); II Dottore, comedia (1765?; not extant); La Vedova, comedia (1765?; not extant); II scanarello, comedia (1765?; not extant); La Canterina, intermezzo in musica (Bratislava, Sept. 11?, 1766); Lo speziale (Der Apotheker), dramma giocoso (Esterhâza, Autumn 1768); Le Pescatrici (Die Fischerinnen), dramma giocoso (1769; Esterhâza, Sept. 16?, 1770); L’infedeltà delusa (Liebe macht erfinderisch; Untreue lohnt sich nicht; Deceit Outwitted), burletta per musica (Esterháza, July 26, 1773); Philemon und Baucis oder Jupiters Reise auf die Erde, Singspiel/marionette opera (Esterháza, Sept. 2, 1773); Hexenschabbas, marionette opera (1773?; not extant); L’incontro improvviso (Die unverhoffte Zusammenkunft; Unverhofftes Begegnen), dramma giocoso (Esterháza, Aug. 29, 1775); Dido, Singspiel /marionette opera (Esterháza, March?, 1776; music not extant); Opéra comique vom abgebrannten Haus (not extant; may be identical with the following work); Die Feuerbrunst, Singspiel /marionette opera (17757-787; may be by Haydn; dialogues not extant); II mondo della luna (Die Welt auf dem Monde), dramma giocoso (Esterháza, Aug. 3, 1777); Die bestrafte Rachbegierde, Singspiel/marionette opera (Esterháza, 1779; music not extant); La vera costanza, dramma giocoso (1778?; Esterháza, April 25, 1779; only music extant appears in the rev. version of 1785); L’isola disabitata (Die wüste Insel), azione teatrale (Esterháza, Dec. 6, 1779; rev. 1802); La fedeltà premiata (Die belohnte Treue), dramma pastorale giocoso (1780; Esterháza, Feb. 25, 1781); Orlando paladino (Der Ritter Roland), dramma eroicomico (Esterháza, Dec. 6, 1782); Armida, dramma eroico (1783; Esterháza, Feb. 26, 1784); L’anima del filosofo ossia Orfeo ed Euridice, dramma per musica (1791; composed for London but not perf.; 1st confirmed perf., Florence, June 10, 1951); Alfred, König der Angelsachsen, oder Der patriotische König (perf. as the incidental music to Haidane, König der Dänen, Eisenstadt, Sept. 1796). orch.: syms: The generally accepted list of Haydn’s authentic syms. numbers 104. For detailed information, consult the monumental study by H. C. Robbins Landon, The Symphonies of]. H. (London, 1955; suppl., 1961); see also his exhaustive biography H.: Chronicle and Works (5 vols., Bloomington, Ind., and London, 1976-80). The numbering follows the thematic catalog prepared by Anthony van Hoboken. Also included are the descriptive titles, whether authorized by Haydn or not. No. 1, in D major (1759); No. 2, in C major (1761); No. 3, in G major (1762); No. 4, in D major (1760); No. 5, in A major (1760); No. 6, in D major, Le Matin (1761); No. 7, in C major, Le Midi (1761); No. 8, in G major, Le Soir (1761); No. 9, in C major (1762); No. 10, in D major (1761); No. 11, in E-flat major (1760); No. 12, in E major (1763); No. 13, in D major (1763); No. 14, in A major (1764); No. 15, in D major (1761); No. 16, in B-flat major (1763); No. 17, in F major (1762); No. 18, in G major (1764); No. 19, in D major (1760); No. 20, in C major (1763); No. 21, in A major (1764); No. 22, in E-flat major, The Philosopher (1764); No. 23, in G major (1764); No. 24, in D major (1764); No. 25, in C major (1761); No. 26, in D minor, Lamentatione (1770); No. 27, in G major (1761); No. 28, in A major (1765); No. 29, in E major (1765); No. 30, in C major, Alleluja (1765); No. 31, in D major, Hornsignal (1765); No. 32, in C major (1760); No. 33, in C major (1760); No. 34, in D minor/D major (1767); No. 35, in B-flat major (1767); No. 36, in E-flat major (1765); No. 37, in C major (1758); No. 38, in C major (1769); No. 39, in G minor (1765); No. 40, in F major (1763); No. 41, in C major (1770); No. 42, in D major (1771); No. 43, in E-flat major, Mercury (1772); No. 44, in E minor, Trauersinfonie (1772); No. 45, in F-sharp minor, Abschiedsinfonie (1772); No. 46, in B major (1772); No. 47, in G major (1772); No. 48, in C major, Maria Theresia (1769); No. 49, in F minor, La passione (1768); No. 50, in C major (1773); No. 51, in B-flat major (1774); No. 52, in C minor (1774); No. 53, in D major, Imperial or Festino (1778); No. 54, in G major (1774); No. 55, in E-flat major, The Schoolmaster (1774); No. 56, in C major (1774); No. 57, in D major (1774); No. 58, in F major (1768); No. 59, in A major, Fire (1769); No. 60, in C major, II Distratto (1774); No. 61, in D major (1776); No. 62, in D major (1780); No. 63, in C major, La Roxelane or Roxolana (1779); No. 64, in A major, Tempora mutantur (1773); No. 65, in A major (1773); No. 66, in B-flat major (1776); No. 67, in F major (1776); No. 68, in B-flat major (1774); No. 69, in C major, Laudon or Loudon (1776); No. 70, in D major (1779); No. 71, in B-flat major (1779); No. 72, in D major (1765); No. 73, in D major, La Chasse (1782); No. 74, in E-flat major (1781); No. 75, in D major (1781); No. 76, in E-flat major (1782); No. 77, in B-flat major (1782); No. 78, in C minor (1782); No. 79, in F major (1784); No. 80, in D minor (1784); No. 81, in G major (1784); Paris syms.: No. 82, in C major, L’Ours or The Bear (1786), No. 83, in G minor, La Poule or The Hen (1785), No. 84, in E-flat major (1786), No. 85, in B-flat major, La Reine or The Queen (1785), No. 86, in D major (1786), and No. 87, in A major (1785); No. 88, in G major (1787); No. 89, in F major (1787); No. 90, in C major (1788); No. 91, in E-flat major (1788); No. 92, in G major, Oxford (1789); London or Salomon syms.: No. 93, in D major (1791; London, Feb. 17, 1792), No. 94, in G major, Mit dem Paukenschlag or The Surprise (1791; London, March 23, 1792), No. 95, in C minor (London, 1791), No. 96, in D major, The Miracle (London, 1791), No. 97, in C major (London, May 3 or 4, 1792), No. 98, in B-flat major (London, March 2, 1792), No. 99, in E-flat major (1793; London, Feb. 10, 1794), No. 100, in G major, Militar or Military (1793-94; London, March 31, 1794), No. 101, in D major, Die Uhr or The Clock (1793-94; London, March 3, 1794), No. 102, in B-flat major (1794; London, Feb. 2, 1795), No. 103, in E-flat major, Paukenwirbel or Drum Roll (London, March 2, 1795), and No. 104, in D major, London or Salomon (London, May 4, 1795); also the Concertante (now called Sinfonia Concertante) in B-flat major, listed in the Hoboken catalog as No. 105 (London, March 9, 1792). Hoboken also lists No. 106, in D major (1769; only 1st movement extant; may have been composed as the overture to Le Pescatrici); No. 107, in B-flat major (1761; may be by Wagenseil); and No. 108, in B-flat major (1761). concertos: 4 for Violin: No. 1, in C major (1765); No. 2, in D major (1765; not extant); No. 3, in A major (1770); No. 4, in G major (1769); 2 for Cello: No. 1, in C major (1765), and No. 2, in D major (1783); another cello concerto may be lost or has been confused with No. 1; 2 for Organ or Harpsichord: C major (1756) and D major (1767); also most likely by Haydn are 3 others for Organ or Harpsichord, all in C major (1763, 1766, 1771); 1 for Violin, and Harpsichord or Organ, in F major (1766); 3 for Harpsichord: in F major (1771), G major (1770; also for Piano), and D major (1784; also for Piano); 1 for Trumpet, in E-flat major (1796); 5 for 2 Lire Organizzate: in C major (1787), F major (1786), G major (1787), F major (1787), and G major (1787); also divertimenti, notturni, etc. Several other concertos for oboe, flute, horn, and bassoon are either lost or spurious. OTHER: Various works, including overtures to dramatic pieces: G minor (to L’isola disabitata); D major (to L’incontro improvviso); G major (to Lo speziale); B-flat major (to La vera costanza); C major (to L’infedeltà delusa); C minor/C major (to II ritorno di Tobia); also the Musica instrumentale sopra le 7 ultime parole del nostro Redentore in croce ossiano 7 sonate con un’introduzione ed alfine un terremoto (1786; for Cadiz). chamber: string quartets: Op.l (c. 1757-59): No. 1, in B- flat major, La Chasse; No. 2, in E-flat major; No. 3, in D major; No. 4, in G major; No. 5, in E-flat major; No. 6, in C major; op.2 (c. 1760-62): No. 1, in A major; No. 2, in E major; No. 4, in F major; No. 6, in B-flat major; op.9 (1771): No. 1, in C major; No. 2, in E-flat major; No. 3, in G major; No. 4, in D minor; No. 5, in B-flat major; No. 6, in A major; op.17 (1771): No. 1, in E major; No. 2, in F major; No. 3, in E-flat major; No. 4, in C minor; No.5, in G major, Recitative; No. 6, in D major; Sun Quartets, op.20 (1772): No. 1, in E-flat major; No. 2, in C major; No. 3, in G minor; No. 4, in D major; No. 5, in F minor; No. 6, in A major; Russian Quartets; Jungfernquartette, op.33 (1781): No. 1, in B minor; No. 2, in E-flat major, The Joke; No. 3, in C major, The Bird; No. 4, in B-flat major; No. 5, in G major, How do you do?; No. 6, in D major; op.42, in D minor (1785); Prussian Quartets, op.50 (1787): No. 1, in B-flat major; No. 2, in C major; No. 3, in E-flat major; No. 4, in F-sharp minor; No. 5, in F major, Ein Traum; No.6, in D major, The Frog; Tost Quartets, op.54 (1788): No. 1, in G major; No. 2, in C major; No. 3, in E major; Tost Quartets, op.55 (1788): No. 1, in A major; No. 2, in F minor, The Razor; No. 3, in B-flat major; Tost Quartets, op.64 (1790): No. 1, in C major; No. 2, in B minor; No. 3, in B-flat major; No. 4, in G major; No. 5, in D major, The Lark; No. 6, in E-flat major; Apponyi Quartets, op.71 (1793): No. 1, in B-flat major; No. 2, in D major; No. 3, in E-flat major; Apponyi Quartets, op.74 (1793): No. 1, in C major; No. 2, in F major; No. 3, in G minor, The Rider; Erdödy Quartets, op.76 (1797): No. 1, in G major; No. 2, in D minor, Fifths; No. 3, in C major, Emperor; No. 4, in B-flat major, Sunrise; No. 5, in D major; No. 6, in E-flat major; Lobkowitz Quartets, op.77 (1799): No. 1, in G major; No. 2, in F major; op.103, in D minor (1803?; unfinished; only movements 2 and 3 finished). OTHER: 21 string trios (3 not extant); a great number of works for baryton, written for Prince Esterházy, who was an avid baryton player: about 125 baryton trios (divertimentos), various works for 1 or 2 barytons, etc.; 29 keyboard sonatas (3 listed as trios), most of them for harpsichord or piano, with violin and cello; 47 solo keyboard sonatas (7 not extant, 1 not complete), almost all of them for harpsichord; etc. arrangements: Of the orch. version of the Musica instrumentale sopra le 7 ultime parole del nostro Redentore in croce…for String Quartet (1787), as well as pieces from the operas La vera costanza and Armidavocal: m a s s e s: Missa Rorate coeli desuper, in G major (date unknown; not extant, or identical with the following); Mass in G major (date unknown; composed by G. Reutter Jr., Arbesser, and Haydn; publ, in London, 1957); Missa brevis in F major (1749?); Missa Cellensis in honorem Beata Maria Virgine, in C major, Cacilienmesse (1766); Missa Sunt bona mixta malis, in D minor (1769?); Missa in honorem Beata Maria Virgine, in E-flat major, Missa Sancii Josephi; Grosse Orgelmesse (1769?); Missa Sancti Nicolai, in G major, Nicolaimesse; 6/4—Takt- Messe (1772); Missa brevis Sancti Joannis de Deo, in B-flat major, Kleine Orgelmesse (1775?); Missa Cellensis, in C major, Mariazeller Messe (1782); Missa Sancti Bernardi von Offida, in B- flat major, Heiligmesse (1796); Missa in tempore belli, in C major, Kriegsmesse; Paukenmesse(Vienna, Dec. 26, 1796?); Missa in D minor, Nelsonmesse; Imperial Mass; Coronation Mass (Eisenstadt, Sept. 23, 1798?); Missa in B-flat major, Theresienmesse (1799); Missa in B-flat major, Schöpfungsmesse (Eisenstadt, Sept. 13, 1801); Missa in B-flat major, Harmoniemesse (Eisenstadt, Sept. 8, 1802). oratorios:Stabat Mater (1767); Applausus (Jubilaeum virtutis Palatium), allegorical oratorio/cantata (Zwettl, April 17, 1768); II ritorno di Tobia (1774-75; Vienna, April 2 and 4, 1775, in 2 parts; rev. 1784); Die sieben letzten Worte unseres Erlösers am Kreuze (1795-96; Vienna, 1796); Die Schöpfung (1796-98; Ist private perf., Schwarzenburg Palace, Vienna, April 29, 1798; Ist public perf., Kärnthnertortheater, Vienna, March 19, 1799); Die Jahreszeiten (1799-1801; Schwarzenburg Palace, Vienna, April 24, 1801). OTHER: 2 Te Deums (both in C major); offertories; secular cantatas; secular vocal works for orch.; more than 50 songs with keyboard accompaniment; vocal duets, trios, and quartets with keyboard accompaniment; more than 50 canons; arrangements of Scottish and other songs; and Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (God Save the Emperor Franz; 1797; was the Austrian national anthem until 1918).
collected editions, source material: The first attempt to publ. a complete edition was made by Breitkopf & Härtel; J. H.s Werke, ed. by G. Adler, H. Kretzschmar, E. Mandyczewski, M. Seiffert, and others, reached only 10 vols, in its coverage (Leipzig, 1907-33). An attempt to continue it after World War II as J. H.: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, under the editorship of Jens Peter Larsen and the sponsorship of the Haydn Soc. of Boston, also failed; only 4 vols, were issued (Boston, Leipzig, and Vienna, 1950-51). Finally, in 1955, through the efforts of Friedrich Blume and the publisher Günter Henle, the Joseph Haydn-Institut of Cologne was founded to sponsor a monumental critical ed. The new ed., J. H.: Werke, also includes accompanying Kritische Berichte. Jens Peter Larsen ed. the first series of vols. (Munich, 1958-61); he was succeeded as editor by Georg Feder. H. C. Robbins Landon has ed. all of the syms. in a separate series, issued in miniature score as J. H.: Kritische Ausgabe sämtlicher Symphonien (I-XII, Vienna, 1965-68). A. van Hoboken prepared a thematic catalog, J. H.: Thematischbibliographisches Werkverzeichnis (2 vols., Mainz, 1957, 1971). Invaluable articles may be found in the H. Yearbook (1962 et seq.) and H. Studien (Joseph Haydn-Institut, Cologne, 1965 et seq.). Other sources include the following: A. Csatkai, J. H.: Katalog der Gedächtnisausstellung in Eisenstadt 1932 (Eisenstadt, 1932); A. Orel, Katalog der H.-Gedächtnisausstellung Wien 1932 (Vienna, 1932); J. Larsen, Die H.-Überlieferung (Copenhagen, 1939); J. Larsen, ed., Drei H. Kataloge in Faksimile: Mit Einleitung und ergänzenden Themenverzeichnissen (Copenhagen, 1941; 2nd ed., rev., 1979); R. Feuchtmuller, F. Hadamowsky, and L. Nowak, J. H. und seine Zeit: Ausstellung Schloss Petronell (N. Ö.) Mai bis Oktober 1959 (Vienna, 1959); L. Nowak, ed., J. H: Ausstellung zum 150. Todestag: Vom 29. Mai bis 30. September 1959 (Vienna, 1959); S. Bryant and G. Chapman, A Melodic Index to H.’s Instrumental Music (N.Y., 1982); E. Badura-Skoda, ed., Congress Report: International F. J. H. Congress: Vienna 1982 (Munich, 1987); F. and M. Grave, F. J. H: A Guide to Research (N.Y., 1990); W. Sutcliffe, ed., H. Studies (Cambridge, 1998). correspondence: H. C. Robbins Landon, ed., The Collected Correspondence and London Notebooks of J. H. (London, 1959); D. Bartha, ed., J. H.: Gesammelte Briefe und Aufzeichnungen: Unter Benützung der Quellensammlung von H. C. Robbins Landon (Kassel, 1965). biographical: S. Mayr, Brevi notizie istoriche della vita e delle opere di H. (Bergamo, 1809); A. Dies, Biographische Nachrichten von J. H.: Nach mündlichen Erzählungen desselben entworfen und herausgegeben von Albert Christoph Dies, Landschaftmahler (Vienna, 1810; modern ed. by H. Seeger, Berlin, 1959; 4th ed., 1976; Eng. tr. in V. Gotwals, ed., J. H: Eighteenth- century Gentleman and Genius, Madison, 1963; 2nd ed., 1968, as H.: Two Contemporary Portraits); G. Carpani, Le Haydine, ovvero Lettere su la vita e le opere del celebre maestro Giuseppe H. (Milan, 1812; 2nd ed., 1823; Eng. tr. as The Life of H. in Letters, 1839); T. von Karajan, J. H. in London, 1791 und 1792 (Vienna, 1861); C. von Wurzbach, J. H. und sein Bruder Michael: Zwei bio-bibliographische Künstler-Skizzen (Vienna, 1861); C. Pohl, Mozart und H. in London: Vol. II, H. in London (Vienna, 1867); idem, J. H. (incomplete; 2 vols.; Vol. I, Berlin, 1875; 2nd ed., 1878; Vol. II, Leipzig, 1882; Vol. Ill, completed by H. Botstiber, Leipzig, 1927); J. Hadden, H. (London and N.Y, 1902; 2nd ed., rev, 1934); F. Artaria and H. Botstiber, J. H. und das Verlagshaus Artaria: Nach den Briefen des Meisters an das Haus Artaria & Compagnie dargestellt (Vienna, 1909); M. Brenet, H. (Paris, 1909; 2nd ed., 1910; Eng. tr., 1926); H. von Hase, J. H. und Breitkopf & Härtel (Leipzig, 1909); A. Schnerich, J. H. und seine Sendung (Zürich, 1922; 2nd ed., 1926, with suppl. by W. Fischer); K. Geiringer, J. H. (Potsdam, 1932); E. Schmid, J. H.: Ein Buch von Vorfahren und Heimat des Meisters (Kassel, 1934); K. Geiringer, H: A Creative Life in Music (N.Y, 1946; 3rd ed., rev, 1983); R. Hughes, H. (London, 1950; 6th ed., rev., 1989); L. Nowak, J. H.: Leben, Bedeutung und Werk (Zürich, 1951; 3rd ed., rev, 1966); R. Sondheimer, H., A Historical and Psychological Study Based on His Quartets (London, 1951); D. Bartha and L. Somfai, H. als Opernkapellmeister: Die H.-Dokumente der Esterhazy-Opernsammlung (Budapest, 1960; rev. ed. in New Looks at Italian Opera: Essays in Honor of Donald J. Grout, Ithaca, N.Y, 1968); H. Seeger, J. H. (Leipzig, 1961); A. van Hoboken, Discrepancies in H. Biographies (Washington, D.C., 1962); L. Somfai, J. H: Sein Leben in zeitgenössischen Bildern (Budapest and Kassel, 1966; Eng. tr., 1969); H. C. Robbins Landon, H. (London, 1972); B. Redfern, H.: A Biography, with a Survey of Books, Editions and Recordings (London, 1972); H. C. Robbins Landon, H: Chronicle and Works (5 vols., Bloomington, Ind., and London; Vol. I, H.: The Early Years, 1732-1765 ; Vol. II, H. at Esterhaza, 1766-1790; Vol. Ill, H. in England, 1791-1795; Vol. IV, H: The Years of ’The Creation,” 1796-1800; Vol. V, H.: The Late Years, 1801-1809); idem, H: A Documentary Study (London, 1981); N. Butterworth, H. (Sydney, 1983); H. C. Robbins Landon and D. Jones, H: His Life and Music (London, 1988); M. Vignai, J. H. (Paris, 1988); W Marggraf, J. H.; Versuch einer Annäherung (Leipzig, 1990); P. Autexier, La lyre maçonne: H., Mozart, Spohr, Liszt (Paris, 1997); E. Sisman, ed., H. and His World (Princeton, 1997). critical, analytical: L. Wendschuh, Über J. H.’s Opern (Halle, 1896); B. Rywosch, Beiträge zur Entwicklung in J. H.’s Symphonik, 1759-1780 (Turbenthal, 1934); H. Wirth, J. H. als Dramatiker: Sein Bühnenschaffen als Beitrag zur Geschichte der deutschen Oper (Wolfenbüttel and Berlin, 1940); C. Brand, Die Messen von J. H. (Würzburg, 1941); H. Therstappen, J. H.s sinfonisches Vermächtnis (Wolfenbüttel, 1941); H. Wirth, J. H: Orfeo ed Euridice; Analytical Notes (Boston, 1951); H. C. Robbins Landon, The Symphonies of]. H. (London, 1955; suppl., 1961; for additional information, consult his H.: Chronicle and Works, Bloomington, Ind., and London, 5 vols., 1976-80); R. Hughes, H. String Quartets (London, 1966); H. C. Robbins Landon, H. Symphonies (London, 1966); I. Saslav, Tempos in the String Quartets of]. H. (diss., Ind. Univ., 1969); A. Brown, The Solo and Ensemble Keyboard Sonatas of]. H: A Study of Structure and Style (diss., Northwestern Univ., 1970); D. Cushman, J. H.’s Melodic Materials: An Exploratory Introduction to the Primary and Secondary Sources Together with an Analytical Catalogue and Tables of Proposed Melodic Correspondence and/or Variance (diss., Boston Univ., 1972); W. Steinbeck, Das Menuett in der Instrumentalmusik J. H.s (Munich, 1973); J. Webster, The Bass Part in H.’s Early String Quartets and in Austrian Chamber Music, 1756-1780 (diss., Princeton Univ., 1973); R. Barrett-Ayres, J. H. and the String Quartet (London and N.Y., 1974); L. Finscher, Studien zur Geschichte des Streichquartetts, Vol. I: Die Entstehung des klassischen Streichquartetts: Von den Vorformen zur Grundlegung durch J. H. (Kassel, 1974); J. Drury, H.’s Seven Last Words: An Historical and Critical Study (diss., Univ. of 111., 1975); W. Koller, Aus der Werkstatt der Wiener Klassiker: Bearbeitung Hs (Tutzing, 1975); B. Wackernagel, J. H.s frühe Klaviersonaten: Ihre Beziehungen zur Klaviermusik um die Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (Tutzing, 1975); I. Lowens, H. in America (Detroit, 1979); C. Wolff, ed., The String Quartets of H., Mozart, and Beethoven: Studies of the Autograph Manuscripts (Cambridge, Mass., 1980); M. Huss, J. fi.: Klassiker zwischen Barock und Biedermeier (Eisenstadt, 1984); S. Fisher, H.’s Overtures and Their Adaptations as Concert Orchestral Works (diss., Univ. of Pa., 1985); A. Peter Brown, Performing H.’s Creation (Bloomington, Ind., 1986); H. Keller, The Great H. Quartets: Their Interpretation (London, 1986); M. Bandur, Form und Gehalt in den Streichquartetten J. H.s: Studien zur Theorie der Sonatenform (Pfaffenweiler, 1988); S. Fruehwald, Authenticity Problems in J. H.’s Early Instrumental Works: A Stylistic Investigation (N.Y., 1988); J. Larsen, Essays on Handel, H., and the Viennese Classical Style (tr. by U. Krämer; Ann Arbor, 1988); J. Taggart, F. J. H.’s Keyboard Sonatas: An Untapped Gold Mine (Lewiston, N.Y, 1988); D. Schroder, H. and the Enlightenment: The Late Symphonies and Their Audience (Oxford, 1990); N. Temperley, H: The Creation (Cambridge, 1991); G. Wheelock, H.’s Ingenious Jesting with Art: Contexts of Musical Wit and Humor (N.Y, 1992); E. Sisman, H. and the Classical Variation (Cambridge, Mass., 1993); R. Wochnik, Die Musiksprache in den opere semiserie J. H.s (Eisenach, 1993); U. Leisinger, J. H. und die Entwicklung des klassischen Klavierstils bis ca. 1785 (Laaber, 1994); H. Haimo, H.’s Symphonie Form: Essays in Compositional Logic (Oxford, 1995); L. Somfai, The Keyboard Sonatas ofj. H.: Instruments and Performance Practice, Genres and Styles (Chicago, 1995); L. Schenbeck, J. H. and the Classical Choral Tradition (Chapel Hill, 1996); D. Schroeder, H. and the Enlightenment: The Late Symphonies and Their Audience (Oxford, 1997); W. Caplin, Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of H, Mozart, and Beethoven (N.Y, 1998); G. Feder, H.s Streichquartette (Munich, 1998); B. Harrison, H: The “Paris” Symphonies (Cambridge, 1998); B. Maclntyre, H: The Creation (N.Y, 1998); B. Moosbauer, Tonart und Form in den Finali der Sinfonien von J. H. zwischen 1766 und 1774 (Tutzing, 1998); G. Feder, J. H, Die Schöpfung: Werkeinführung (Kassel, 1999).
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire