Enríquez, Manuel, significant Mexican composer, violinist, and teacher; b. Ocotlan, June 17, 1926; d. Mexico City, April 26, 1994. He was 6 when he began violin lessons with his father, and 5 years later he started composing. He studied violin with Ignacio Camarena at the Guadalajara Cons. (1935–45) and composition with Bernal Jimenez in Morelia (1952–55). From 1949 to 1955 he was concertmaster of the Guadalajara Sym. Orch. He then continued his training with Mennin (composition) and Galamian (violin) at the Juilliard School of Music in N.Y. (1955–57), and also had private theory lessons with Wolpe (1957). Later he pursued research at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (1971). Enriquez was asst. concertmaster of the National Sym. Orch. of Mexico (1958–65) and concert-master of the National Sym. Chamber Orch. (from 1965). He also taught violin and composition at the National Cons, in Mexico City (1964–75), where he served as director (1972–74). From 1977 to 1988 he was director of CENIDIM (the National Searching and Information Music Center). After serving as music director of the National Inst. of Fine Arts (1988–92), he taught at the Univ. of Calif, at Los Angeles (1992–94). Enriquez was a leading composer of the post-Chavez generation in Mexico. His early works show the influences of Hindemith, Bartok, and jazz. After his U.S. studies, his music progressed into the vanguard of severe constructivism, employing dodecaphony, serialism, sonorism, indeterminacy, and graphic notation.
DRAMATIC Mixteria for Actress, 4 Musicians, and Tape (1970); Trauma for Actress/Dancer, Musicians, Dancers, and Tape (1974); La Casa del Sol for Musicians, Dancers, Actors, and Tape (1976). ORCH.: Musica Incidental (1952); 2 violin concertos (1955, 1966); Suite for Strings (1957); 2 syms. (1957, 1962); Predmbulo (1961); Obertura Lirica (1963); Transicion (1965); Poema for Cello and Strings (1966); Trayectorias (1967); Si Lebet (1968); Ixamatl (Donaueschingen, Oct. 19, 1969); Piano Concerto (1970; Mexico City, March 19, 1971); El y…ellos for Violin and Orch. Ensemble (1971); Encuentros for Strings and 4 Percussionists (1972); Ritual (1973); Corriente Alterna (1977); Raices (1977); Fases (1978); Concierto Barroco for 2 Violins, Strings, and Harpsichord (1978); Interminado sueno (1981); Manantial de soles (1984); Cello Concerto (1990); Concerto for 2 Guitars and Orch. (1992). CHAMBER: Suite for Violin and Piano (1949); 5 string quartets (1959; 1967; 1974; 1984; Xopan cuicatl, 1988); Divertimento for Flute, Clarinet, and Bassoon (1962); 4 Pieces for Viola and Piano (1962); Pentamusica for Wind Quintet (1963); 3 Formas Concertantes for Violin, Cello, Clarinet, Bassoon, Horn, Piano, and Percussion (1964); Violin Sonata (1964); Ambivalencia for Violin and Cello (1967); Concierto para 8 for 7 Musicians and Conductor (1968); Diptico I for Flute and Piano (1969) and II for Violin and Piano (1971); Movil II for Violin With or Without Tape (1969); 3 x Bach for Violin and Tape (1970); Monologo for Trombone (1971); d…2 for Violin and Piano (1972); Piano Trio (1974); Tlachtli for Violin, Cello, Flute, Clarinet, Horn, Trombone, and Piano (1976); Conuro for Double Bass and Tape (1976); Tzicuri for Cello, Clarinet, Trombone, and Piano (1976); Oboemia for Oboe (1982); Poliptico for 6 Percussionists (1983); Interecos for Percussion and Electronic Sound (1984); Vivencias liricas for Wind Ensemble (1986); Quasi libero for Flute and String Quartet (1989); Tercia for Clarinet, Bassoon, and Piano (1990); Fantasia concertante for Cello and Piano (1991); Didlogo for Cello (1992). KEYBOARD : Piano : A Lapiz (1965); Modules for 2 Pianos (1965); Movil I (1968–69); Para Alicia (1970); 1 x 4 for Piano, 4-Hands (1975); Hoy de ayer (1981). Organ : Imaginario (1973). VOCAL: Ego, cantata for Woman’s Voice, Flute, Cello, Piano, and Percussion (1966); Contravox for Chorus, 2 Percussionists, and Tape (1977); Manantial de soles for Soprano, Actor, and Chamber Orch. (1984); Cantata a Juarez for Baritone, Chorus, and Orch. (1984); Rapsodia latinoamericana for Orch. and Optional Chorus (1987); Piedras del viento for Narrator, Chorus, and Orch. (1991); Vision de los vencidos for Mezzo-soprano, Chorus, and Orch (1993). ELECTRONIC : La Reunion de los Saurios (1971); Laser I (1972); Musica para Federico Silva (1974); Cantos de los Volcanos (1977); Interecos (1984).
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire