Crichton, Michael 1942–
Crichton, Michael 1942–
PERSONAL: Surname is pronounced "cry-ton"; born October 23, 1942, in Chicago, IL; son of John Henderson (a corporate president) and Zula (Miller) Crichton; married Joan Radam, January 1, 1965 (divorced, 1970); married Kathleen St. Johns, 1978 (divorced, 1980); married Suzanne Childs (marriage ended); married Anne-Marie Martin, 1987 (divorced); children: (fourth marriage) Taylor (daughter). Education: Harvard University, A.B. (summa cum laude), 1964, M.D., 1969.
ADDRESSES: Office—(West Coast) Jenkins Financial Services, 433 North Camden Dr., Ste. 500, Beverly Hills, CA 90210-4443; (East Coast) Constant C Productions, 282 Katonah Ave., No. 246, Katonah, NY 10536-2110. Agent—International Creative Management, 40 West 57th Street, New York, NY, 10019.
CAREER: Author and physician, 1969–. Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, postdoctoral fellow, 1969–70; visiting writer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1988.
Director of films and teleplays, including Pursuit (based on his novel Binary), American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., 1972, Westworld, Metro-Goldwyn- Mayer, 1973, Coma, United Artists (UA), 1978, The Great Train Robbery, UA, 1979, Looker, Warner Bros., 1981, Runaway, Tri-Star Pictures, 1984, Physical Evidence, Columbia, 1989, and The Thirteenth Warrior (also known as Eaters of the Dead), Buena Vista, 1999. Executive producer of film Disclosure, Warner Bros., 1994; producer of films, including Twister, Warner Bros., 1996, Jurassic Park III, 1997; Sphere, Warner Bros., 1998, and The Thirteenth Warrior, Buena Vista, 1999. Creator and executive producer, ER (television series), National Broadcast Company, Inc., 1994–.
MEMBER: Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Aesculaepian Society, Authors Guild, Authors League of America, Directors Guild of America, Mystery Writers Guild of America (West), PEN, Phi Beta Kappa.
AWARDS, HONORS: Edgar Award, Mystery Writers of America, 1968, for A Case of Need, and 1979, for The Great Train Robbery; writer of the year award, Association of American Medical Writers, 1970, for Five Patients: The Hospital Explained; George Foster Pea-body Award, 1995, and Emmy Award for Best Dramatic Series, 1996, both for ER; Modern Library Association Best Fiction List, 2001, for Timeline.
The Andromeda Strain, Knopf (New York, NY), 1969.
(With brother, Douglas Crichton, under joint pseudonym Michael Douglas) Dealing; or, The Berkeley-to- Boston Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues, Knopf (New York, NY), 1971.
The Terminal Man, Knopf (New York, NY), 1972.
Westworld, Bantam (New York, NY), 1974.
The Great Train Robbery, Knopf (New York, NY), 1975.
Eaters of the Dead: The Manuscript of Ibn Fadlan, Relating His Experiences with the Northmen in A.D. 922, Knopf (New York, NY), 1976.
Congo, Knopf (New York, NY), 1980.
Sphere, Knopf (New York, NY), 1987.
Jurassic Park, Knopf, 1990, published as Michael Crichton's Jurassic World, Knopf (New York, NY), 1997.
Rising Sun, Knopf (New York, NY), 1992.
Disclosure, Knopf (New York, NY), 1994.
The Lost World, Knopf (New York, NY), 1995.
Airframe, Knopf (New York, NY), 1996.
The Lost World, Jurassic Park: The Movie Storybook, (based on the motion picture and the novel), Grosset & Dunlap (New York, NY), 1997.
Timeline, Knopf (New York, NY), 1999.
Prey, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2002.
State of Fear, HarperCollins (New York, NY), 2004.
Five Patients: The Hospital Explained, Knopf (New York, NY), 1970.
Jasper Johns, Abrams (New York, NY), 1977, revised and expanded edition, 1994.
Electronic Life: How to Think about Computers, Knopf (New York, NY), 1983.
Travels (autobiography), Knopf (New York, NY), 1988.
Extreme Close- up, National General, 1973.
Westworld (based on novel of same title), Metro-Gold-wyn-Mayer, 1973.
Coma (based on novel of same title by Robin Cook), United Artists, 1977.
The Great Train Robbery (based on novel of same title), United Artists, 1978.
Looker, Warner Bros., 1981.
Runaway, Tri-Star Pictures, 1984.
(With John Koepp) Jurassic Park, 1993.
(With Philip Kaufman and Michael Backes) Rising Sun, 1993.
Twister, Warner Bros., 1996.
UNDER PSEUDONYM JOHN LANGE
Odds On, New American Library (New York, NY), 1966.
Scratch One, New American Library (New York, NY), 1967.
Easy Go, New American Library (New York, NY), 1968, published as The Last Tomb, Bantam (New York, NY), 1974.
Zero Cool, New American Library (New York, NY), 1969.
The Venom Business, New American Library (New York, NY), 1969.
Drug of Choice, New American Library (New York, NY), 1970.
Grave Descend, New American Library (New York, NY), 1970.
Binary, Knopf (New York, NY), 1971.
UNDER PSEUDONYM JEFFREY HUDSON
A Case of Need, New American Library (New York, NY), 1968.
Contributor to periodicals, including Wired, and Washington Monthly.
ADAPTATIONS: The Andromeda Strain was filmed by Universal, 1971; A Case of Need was adapted as the film The Carey Treatment (also known as Emergency Ward) and filmed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1972; Binary was filmed as Pursuit, ABC-TV, 1972; The Terminal Man was filmed by Warner Brothers, 1974; Jurassic Park was filmed by Steven Spielberg and released in 1994; Congo was filmed by Frank Marshall and released by Paramount, 1995; Disclosure was filmed and released in 1995; The Lost World: Jurassic Park was released by Universal, 1997; Sphere was adapted for the screen and released by Warner Brothers, 1998; The Thirteenth Warrior was released by Buena Vista, 1999; Timeline was filmed by Paramount Pictures, 2003. Timeline was also adapted as a computer game.
WORK IN PROGRESS: Developing a video game with Sega.
SIDELIGHTS: Michael Crichton has had a number of successful careers—physician, teacher, film director, screenwriter—but he is perhaps best known for pioneering the "techno-thriller" with novels such as Jurassic Park, Andromeda Strain, and Congo and for creating and producing the hit television series, ER. Whether writing about a deadly microorganism, brain surgery gone awry, or adventures in the Congo, Crichton has the ability to blend the tight plot and suspense of the thriller with the technicalities of science fiction, making him a favorite with readers of all ages. Summing up Crichton's appeal in the Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook, Robert L. Sims wrote, "His importance lies in his capacity to tell stories related to that frontier where science and fiction meet…. Crichton's best novels demonstrate that, for the immediate future at least, technological innovations offer the same possibilities and limitations as their human creators."
Crichton's first brush with literary success occurred during medical school. To help pay for tuition and living expenses, he wrote paperback thrillers on the weekends and during vacations. One of these books, A Case of Need, became an unexpected hit. Written under a pseudonym, the novel revolves around a Chinese-American obstetrician who is unjustly accused of performing an illegal abortion on the daughter of a prominent Boston surgeon. Critical reaction to the book was very positive. "Read A Case of Need now," urged Fred Rotondaro in Best Sellers, "it will entertain you; get you angry—it will make you think." Allen J. Hubin, writing in the New York Times Book Review, similarly noted that the "breezy, fast-paced, up-to-date first novel … demonstrates again the ability of detective fiction to treat contemporary social problems in a meaningful fashion."
Also published while the author was still in medical school, The Andromeda Strain made Crichton a minor celebrity on campus (especially when the film rights were sold to Universal Studios). Part historical journal, the novel uses data such as computer printouts, bibliographic references, and fictional government documents to lend credence to the story of a deadly microorganism that arrives on Earth aboard a NASA space probe. The virus quickly kills most of the residents of Piedmont, Arizona. Two survivors, an old man and a baby, are taken to a secret government compound for study by Project Wildfire. The Wildfire team—Stone, a bacteriologist, Leavitt, a clinical microbiologist, Burton, a pathologist, and Hall, a practicing surgeon—must race against the clock to isolate the organism and find a cure before it spreads into the general population.
The mix of science and suspense in The Andromeda Strain brought varied reactions from reviewers. While admitting that he stayed up all night to finish the book, Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, writing in the New York Times, observed that he felt cheated by the conclusion. Richard Schickel, writing in Harper's, was more concerned with a shortage of character development: "The lack of interest in this matter is … amazing. Perhaps so much creative energy went into his basic situation that none was left for people." Not all critics were as harsh in their evaluation of the novel, however. "The pace is fast and absorbing," claimed Alexander Cook in Commonweal. He went on to say, "The writing is spare and its quality is generally high; and the characters, if not memorable, are at any rate sufficiently sketched in and have been given little personal touches of their own."
Crichton also used the world of science and medicine as a backdrop for The Terminal Man. The title refers to computer scientist Harry Benson who, as the result of an automobile accident, suffers severe epileptic seizures. As the seizures grow in intensity, Benson has blackouts during which he commits violent acts. At the urging of his doctors, Benson undergoes a radical procedure in which an electrode is inserted into his brain. Hooked up to a packet in the patient's shoulder, the electrode is wired to locate the source of the seizures and delivers a shock to the brain every time an episode is about to occur. Something goes wrong, and Benson's brain is overloaded. As the shocks increase, Benson becomes more irrational, dangerous, and eventually, murderous.
John R. Coyne in the National Review found The Terminal Man "one of the season's best." He added, "Crichton proves himself capable of making the most esoteric material completely comprehensible to the layman…. Even more important, he can create and sustain that sort of suspense that forces us to suspend disbelief." And, in an Atlantic review of the novel, Edward Weeks opined that Crichton has "now written a novel quite terrifying in its suspense and implication."
In The Great Train Robbery, Crichton moved out of the realm of science and into the world of Victorian England. Loosely based on an actual event, the book explores master criminal Edward Pierce's attempt to steal a trainload of army payroll on its way to the Crimea. " The Great Train Robbery combines the pleasures, guilt, and delight of a novel of gripping entertainment with healthy slices of instruction and information interlarded," observed Doris Grumbach in the New Republic. Lehmann-Haupt enthused that he found himself "not only captivated because it is Mr. Crichton's best thriller to date … but also charmed most of all by the story's Victorian style and content." And Weeks, writing in the Atlantic Monthly, called the novel "an exciting and very clever piece of fiction."
Congo marked Crichton's return to the field of science and technology. In the novel, three adventurers travel through the dense rain forests of the Congo in search of a cache of diamonds with the power to revolutionize computer technology. The trio is accompanied by an intelligent, linguistically-trained gorilla named Amy, the designated intermediary between the scientists and a band of killer apes who guard the gems. The small band's search is hampered by cannibals, volcanoes, and mutant primates; it is also marked by a sense of desperation, as the team fights to beat a Euro-Japanese rival company to the prize. In a review of Congo for Best Sellers, Justin Blewitt termed the novel "an exciting, fast-paced adventure. It rang very true and at the same time was a terrific page-turner. That's a rare combination…. [Congo is] really a lot of fun."
A scientific—and monetary—search is also the emphasis of Sphere. An American ship laying cable in the Pacific hits a snag; the snag turns out to be a huge spaceship, estimated to be at least three centuries old. An undersea research team investigates the strange craft from the relative safety of an underwater habitat. Among the civilian and military crew is psychologist Norman Johnson, whose apprehension about the entire project is validated by a number of increasingly bizarre and deadly events: a bad storm cuts the habitat off from the surface, strange messages appear on computer screens, and an unseen—but apparently huge—squid attacks the crew's quarters.
"Crichton's new novel … kept me happy for two hours sitting in a grounded plane," wrote Robin McKinley in the New York Times Book Review, adding that "no one can ask for more of a thriller…. Take this one along with you on your next plane ride." While noting that he had some problems with Sphere—including stilted dialogue and broad characterizations—James M. Kahn mused that Crichton "keeps us guessing at every turn…. [He is] a storyteller and a damned good one." And Michael Collins, writing in the Washington Post Book World, noted that "the pages turn quickly." He urged readers to "suspend your disbelief and put yourself 1,000 feet down."
Crichton also authored the blockbuster Jurassic Park, in which he brings the dinosaurs back from extinction. Jurassic Park chronicles the attempts of self-made billionaire John Hammond to build an amusement park on a remote island off the coast of Costa Rica. Instead of roller coasters and sideshows, the park features actual life-sized dinosaurs bred through the wonders of biotechnology and recombinant DNA. There are some problems before the park opens, however: workmen begin to die in mysterious accidents and local children are attacked by strange lizards. Fearful that the project's opening is in jeopardy, Hammond calls together a team of scientists and technicians to look things over. Led by a paleontologist named Grant, the group is initially amazed by Hammond's creation. Their amazement quickly turns to horror when the park's electronic security system is put out of commission and the dinosaurs are freed to roam at will. What ensues is a deadly battle between the vastly under-armed human contingent and a group of smarter-than-anticipated tyrannosaurs, pterodactyls, stegosaurs, and velociraptors.
Time correspondent John Skow considered Jurassic Park the author's "best [techno-thriller] by far since The Andromeda Strain." Skow added that Crichton's "sci-fi is convincingly detailed." In a piece for the Los Angeles Times Book Review, Andrew Ferguson remarked that, "having read Crichton's fat new novel … I have a word of advice for anyone owning real estate within ten miles of the La Brea tar pits: Sell." Ferguson criticized the novel, saying its "only real virtue" lies in "its genuinely interesting discussion of dinosaurs, DNA research, paleontology, and chaos theory." Gary Jennings of the New York Times Book Review was more appreciative, arguing that the book has "some good bits…. All in all, Jurassic Park is a great place to visit."
Crichton left the world of science in Rising Sun, a political thriller revolving around the murder of a young American woman during a party for a huge Japanese corporation. The case is given to detective Peter J. Smith, who finds himself up against an Oriental syndicate with great political and economic power. As Smith gets closer to the truth, the Japanese corporation uses all its influence to thwart his investigation—influence that includes corruption and violence. John Schwartz in Newsweek recognized that Crichton had "done his homework," but the critic still felt that Rising Sun is too full of "randy propaganda instead of a more balanced view" to be effective.
If Rising Sun was criticized as having a xenophobic view of the Far East, Disclosure, Crichton's 1994 bestseller, opened a whole new vista for debate and discussion. A techno-thriller with a twist, Disclosure opens as a computer company executive named Tom Sanders discovers that he has been passed over for a promotion in favor of a woman executive with whom he had once been romantically involved. When he arrives at his new boss's office, she makes a pass at him. Now happily married, Sanders dodges the boss's advances, only to find within days that he has been named as the aggressor in a sexual harassment suit. How Sanders digs his way from beneath the spurious charges—while simultaneously unearthing wider corruption in the computer company—forms the core of the novel.
While critics duly observed the theme of sexual harassment in Disclosure, they tended to dwell more upon the thriller aspect of the novel. In New Statesman and Society, Douglas Kennedy commended Disclosure as an "acidic glimpse into the nasty gamesmanship of U.S. corporate life," adding, "Sexual harassment becomes a minor consideration in a narrative more preoccupied by the wonders of virtual reality and the vicious corporate battlefield." People magazine reviewer Susan Toepfer found that by casting the woman as the wrongdoer, "Crichton offers a fresh and provocative story," but contended he did not sufficiently explore the situation's possibilities. National Review contributor Michael Coren likewise noted of the novel, "This is provocative stuff, for to question the racial or gender exclusivity of self-awarded victim status is to kick at the very foundations of modern liberalism."
Both Disclosure and Jurassic Park were produced as feature films, the latter proving to be one of the top-grossing movies of all time. Perhaps the vast success of Jurassic Park as a book and a film inspired Crichton to revisit his scheming raptors and vicious tyrannosaurs in The Lost World. Also set on an island off the coast of Costa Rica, The Lost World follows the adventures of another team of scientists—with a return appearance by mathematical theorist Ian Malcolm—as they try to escape the clutches of the dinosaurs and thwart the ambitions of some egg-stealing opportunists. Noted Susan Toepfer in People, "Characteristically clever, fast-paced and engaging, Michael Crichton's … work accomplishes what he set out to do: offer the still-harrowing thrills of a by-now-familiar ride."
In Prey, Crichton exposes the sinister in nano-technology—tiny machines less than half the thickness of a human hair with the ability to reproduce, learn, and evolve. The story centers on Jack, a Mr. Mom-parent of three children and his workaholic wife's top-secret career which turns out to be developing dangerous nanotechnology for the military. In true Crichton form the book is a page-turning adventure, extrapolating pages of both current and speculative science and technology into a best-selling novel. Critics had mixed reviews for the book, especially in comparison to Crichton's earlier successes. A Kirkus Reviews contributor described Prey as "nanotechnology [gone] homicidal" and considered the book a "disappointing effort from an author who simply refuses to change an old, tired template." Michael Hilzik of the Los Angeles Times agreed, calling Prey lean of drama, tension, and peril and "decidedly lesser Crichton." A USA Today reviewer considered the book "overly technical," while a New York Times reviewer described it as "irresistibly suspenseful" and said he "turned the pages feverishly."
In 2004 Crichton published State of Fear, a controversial work in which the validity of global warming is questioned and ecoterrorism exists. Critics felt strongly about Crichton's "work of thinly disguised political commentary," as Chris Mooney described the book in Skeptical Inquirer. Mooney called the main character "a vessel into which Crichton can pour his agenda-driven reading of the scientific evidence" and concluded that "such writing is pure porn for deniers of global warming." Bruce Barcott, writing for "New York Times Book Review," commented that "State of Fear is so over-the-top … that it wouldn't take much to turn it into a satiric parable of a liberal coming to his conservative senses." Andrew Stuttaford, reviewing the book for National Review, felt differently. He pointed out that the book is "packed with graphs, scientific discussion, footnotes, a manifesto, and an extensive bibliography," all elements which make for "a good, solid, exciting read."
Crichton's ability to mesh science, technology, and suspense is not limited to novels. Many of the films that the author has directed, such as Westworld and Runaway, feature a struggle between humans and technology. Despite the often grim outlook of both his films and novels, Crichton revealed in an interview with Ned Smith of American Way that his primary goal in making movies and writing books is to "entertain people." He continued, "It's fun to manipulate people's feelings and to be manipulated. To take a movie, or get a book and get very involved in it—don't look at my watch, forget about other things," he said. As for critical reaction to his work, Crichton told Smith: "Every critic assumes he's a code-breaker; the writer makes a code and the critic breaks it. And it doesn't work that way at all. As a mode of working, you need to become very uncritical."
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 10, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1993, pp. 63- 70.
Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 2, 1974, Volume 6, 1976, Volume 54, 1989.
Contemporary Novelists, 7th edition, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2001.
Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook: 1981, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1982.
St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, St. James Press (Detroit, MI), 2000.
Shay, Don, and Jody Shay, The Making of Jurassic Park, Ballantine (New York, NY), 1993.
Trembley, Elizabeth A., Michael Crichton: A Critical Companion, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1996.
American Spectator, May, 1992, John Podhhoretz, review of Rising Sun, p. 71.
Atlanta Journal- Constitution, September 30, 1999, Don O'Briant, "Medical Thrillers Pay Off for Former Doctor," p. C2.
Atlantic, May, 1972, pp. 108-110.
Best Sellers, August 15, 1968, pp. 207-208; February, 1981, p. 388.
Book, November, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 69.
Booklist, November 15, 1996, Ray Olson, review of Airframe, p. 548; January 1, 1997, review of Timeline, p. 763; January 1, 2000, review of Timeline, p. 819; February 15, 2001, Mary McCay, review of Timeline, p. 1166; May 1, 2001, Karen Harris, audio book review of The Great Train Robbery, p. 1616; December 1, 2002, Kristine Huntley, review of Prey, p. 628.
Boston Herald, November 28, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 59.
Business Week, December 6, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 12E10; December 2, 2002, review of Prey, p. 103.
Commonweal, August 9, 1969, pp. 493-494.
Daily Telegraph (London, England), December 14, 2002, Toby Clements, review of Prey.
Entertainment Weekly, December 3, 1990, p. 80; December 16, 1994, Cindy Pearlman, "Michael Crichton Gets Criticism from Doctors for His Television Show ER," p. 16; December 30, 1994, Albert Kim, "The Entertainers"; 1994: Michael Crichton, p. 30; January 13, 1995, Lisa Schwarzbaum, review of Disclosure, pp. 52-53; September 22, 1995, Tom De Haven, review of The Lost World, pp. 72-73; November 26, 1999, "Joust for Kicks, review of Timeline," p. 84; November 29, 2002, Benjamin Svetkey, "Michael Crichton Gets Small" (interview), p. 628.
Forbes, June 21, 1993, Steve Forbes, review of Jurassic Park, p. 24; September 13, 1993, Steve Forbes, review of Congo, p. 26; September 13, 1993, Steve Forbes, review of Sphere, p. 26; February 14, 1994, review of Disclosure, p. 26; February 21, 1994, p. 108.
Globe and Mail (Toronto, Ontario, Canada), December 4, 1999, review of Timeline, p. D16.
Guardian (London, England), December 4, 1999, Mark Lawson, "We Have Been Here Before: Mark Lawson Sees Michael Crichton Collide with the Talent of H.G. Wells," p. 10; March 9, 2002, Nicholas Lezard, "Pick of the Week: Nicholas Lezard Learns How to Review Books," p. 11; December 14, 2002, review of Prey, p. 29.
Harper's, August, 1969, p. 97.
Journal of the American Medical Association, September 8, 1993, Andrew A. Skolnick, review of Jurassic Park, p. 1252.
Kirkus Reviews, November 1, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 1673; November 15, 2002, review of Prey, p. 1639.
Kliatt Young Adult Paperback Book Guide, September, 1999, audio book review of The Lost World, p. 56.
Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, November 27, 2002, Chris Cobbs, review of Prey, p. 56.
Library Journal, January, 1997, Mark Annichiarico, audio book review of Airframe, p. 172; October 15, 1999, Stephen L. Hupp, audio book review of The Lost World, p. 122; December, 1999, Jeff Ayers, review of Timeline, p. 184; April 1, 2000, Cliff Glaviano, audio book review of Timeline, p. 152.
Los Angeles Times, November 29, 2002, Bettijane Le-vine, "Tall Tech Tales; Michael Crichton's Macabre Vision Finds Another Perch in Prey," p. E37; December 22, 2002, Michael Hiltzik, "It's a Small World after All," p. R10.
Los Angeles Times Book Review, July 12, 1987, pp. 1, 13; November 11, 1990, p. 4; October 29, 1995, p. 2; December 15, 1996, p. 3; November 14, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 3; December 22, 2002, "It's a Small World after All," p. R10.
Nation, May 11, 1992, Karl Taro Greenfeld, "The Out-nation: A Search for the Soul of Japan," p. 637.
National Review, June 23, 1972, pp. 700-701; August 17, 1992, Anthony Lejeune, review of Rising Sun, p. 40; February 21, 1994, Michael Coren, review of Disclosure, p. 63; December 6, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 68; February 28, 2005, Andrew Stut-taford, "Global Warning," p. 52.
New Republic, June 7, 1975, pp. 30-1.
New Statesman, February 4, 1994, Douglas Kennedy, review of Disclosure, p. 49; December 20, 1997, p. 121.
New Statesman and Society, March 1, 1991, Elizabeth J. Young, review of Jurassic Park, p. 34.
Newsweek, November 19, 1990, Peter S. Prescott, review of Jurassic Park, p. 69; February 17, 1992, John Schwartz, review of Rising Sun, p. 64; January 17, 1994, David Gates, review of Disclosure, p. 52; December 9, 1996, Jeff Giles and Ray Sawhill, "Hollywood's Dying for Novel Ideas," p. 80; November 22, 1999, "Moving across Mediums: Why It's Hard to Get a Handle on Michael Crichton" (interview), p. 94.
New Yorker, February 7, 1994, review of Disclosure, p. 99; June 27, 1994, Anthony Lane, review of Disclosure, p. 81; December 16, 1996, John Lanchester, review of Airframe, p. 103.
New York Review of Books, April 23, 1992, Ian Buruma, review of Rising Sun, p. 3; August 12, 1993, Stephen Jay Gould, review of Jurassic Park, p. 51; February 29, 1996, pp. 20- 24; January 9, 1997, Louis Menand, review of Airframe, p. 16.
New York Times, May 30, 1969, p. 25; June 10, 1975; December 5, 1996, p. 35; October 15, 1999, Stephen L. Hupp, audio book review of The Lost World, p. 122; November 18, 1999, Christopher Le-hmann-Haupt, review of Timeline, p. E9; November 24, 2002, Jim Holt, "It's the Little Things."
New York Times Book Review, August 18, 1968, p. 20; July 12, 1987, Robin McKinley, review of Sphere, p. 18; June 26, 1988, Patricia Bosworth, review of Travels, p. 30; November 1, 1990, pp. 14-15; November 11, 1990, Gary Jennings, review of Jurassic Park, p. 14; February 9, 1992, Robert Nathan, review of Rising Sun, p. 1; January 23, 1994, Maureen Dowd, review of Disclosure, p. 7; October 1, 1995, Mim Udovitch, review of The Lost World, pp. 9-10; December 15, 1996, Tom Shone, review of Airframe, p. 12; November 21, 1999, Daniel Mendelsohn, "Knights-errant: Michael Crichton's New Novel Employs Quantum Theory to Transport Some Twenty-first- Century Yalies into Fourteenth-Century France," p. 6; January 30, 2005, Bruce Barcott, "Not So Hot," p. 12.
Observer (London, England), December 5, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 11.
PC Magazine, May 27, 1997, Sebastian Rupley and Bill Howard, "Can the Web Hurt Schools? Author Michael Crichton and FCC Chief Reed Hundt Spar at PC Forum," p. 30; June 5, 2001, Les Freed, "Computer Game Review of Timeline," p. 210.
People, January 17, 1994, Susan Toepfer, "Talking with … Michael Crichton: America's Tallest, Richest Writer?" (interview), p. 24; September 18, 1995, Susan Toepfer, review of The Lost World, p. 37.
Publishers Weekly, September 28, 1990, Sybil Steinberg, review of Jurassic Park, p. 84; January 27, 1992, review of Rising Sun, p. 91; July 22, 1996, p. 142; November 11, 1996, review of Airframe, p. 58; December 2, 1996, audio book review of Airframe, p. 30; December 16, 1996, Daisy Maryles, "Behind the Bestsellers," p. 20; November 1, 1999, "The High Concept of Michael Crich-ton" (interview), p. S3; November 8, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 51; October 28, 2002, review of Prey, p. 49; December 9, 2002, Daisy Maryles, review of Prey, p. 15.
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 21, 1999, "Crichton's Latest Thriller Takes Readers to Fourteenth-Century France," p. F13.
School Library Journal, April, 2000, Molly Conally, review of Timeline, p. 158.
Science Fiction Chronicle, April, 2001, review of Timeline, p. 38.
Skeptical Inquirer, May/June 2005, Chris Mooney, "Bad Science, Bad Fiction, and an Agenda," p. 53.
Time, November 12, 1990, John Skow, review of Jurassic Park, p. CB6; February 24, 1992, John Skow, review of Rising Sun, p. 63; January 10, 1994, Gregory Jaynes, "Pop Fiction's Prime Provocateur: Michael Crichton" (interview), p. 52; September 25, 1995, Gregory Jaynes, "Meet Mr. Wizard: Author Michael Crichton," p. 60; September 25, 1995, Michael D. Lemonick, "How Good Is His Science?," p. 65; December 9, 1996, p. 90; November 22, 1999, James Poniewozik, review of Timeline, p. 107; December 2, 2002, Lev Grossman, "Death Swarmed Over: Crichton's Latest Is a Soulless, By-the-Numbers Techno-Thriller—And You Won't Be Able to Put It Down" p. 96.
U.S. News and World Report, March 9, 1992, p. 50.
Vanity Fair, January, 1994, Zoe Heller, "The Admirable Crichton," p. 32- 49.
Washington Post Book World, June 14, 1987, pp. 1, 14; September 5, 1999, review of Timeline, p. 3.
Official Michael Crichton Web site, http://www.crichton-official.com/ (November 9, 2003).
Random House Web site, http://www.randomhouse.com/ (November 9, 2003), "Michael Crichton."