Marie Louise of Austria (1791–1847)
Marie Louise of Austria (1791–1847)
Empress and regent of France, duchess of Parma, who was Napoleon's second wife . Name variations: Maria Louisa or Maria Luisa; Marie-Louise; Marie-Louise of France; Marie-Louise Habsburg; Mary Louise of Austria. Archduchess of Austria (1814–1847). Born in Vienna, Austria, on December 12, 1791; died in Parma, Italy, on December 17, 1847; daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman emperor (r. 1792–1806), who was king of Austria as Francis I (r. 1804–1835), and Maria Teresa of Naples (1772–1807); sister of Ferdinand I, emperor of Austria (r. 1835–1848), and Leopoldina of Austria (1797–1817); daughter-in-law of Letizia Bonaparte (1750–1836); became second wife of Napoleon I, emperor of France (r. 1804–1815), in 1810; married Count Adam Adalbert von Neipperg, in 1821; married Count Charles de Bombelles, in 1834; children: (first marriage) Napoleon II (1811–1832), also known as the duc de Reichstadt, king of Rome; (second marriage) two.
Marie Louise of Austria was born in 1791, the daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman emperor, and Maria Teresa of Naples . Marie Louise's marriage to Napoleon I Bonaparte was arranged for the purpose of producing an heir and in hopes of establishing a bond between his regime and the Habsburgs, one of Europe's oldest royal houses. However political the bond may have been, Napoleon, who had reluctantly divorced Josephine , grew genuinely fond of Marie Louise, especially when she gave birth to an heir in 1811. When Napoleon abdicated in 1814 and went into exile on the island of Elba, Marie Louise returned home to her father and was granted sovereignty over Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. She was a liberal ruler. After Napoleon's death, she married Count Adam von Neipperg in 1821 and had two children. Following Neipperg's demise in 1829 and an uprising in 1831, she was driven from Parma but was later returned by the Austrians. Marie Louise married Count Charles de Bombelles in 1834, 13 years before she died of pleurisy at Parma.
Decaux, Alain. Napoleon's Mother. London: The Cresset Press, 1962.
Seward, Desmond. Napoleon's Family. NY: Viking, 1986.
Stirling, Monica. Madame Letizia: A Portrait of Napoleon's Mother. NY: Harper & Brothers, 1961.
"Marie Louise of Austria (1791–1847)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marie-louise-austria-1791-1847
"Marie Louise of Austria (1791–1847)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Retrieved April 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marie-louise-austria-1791-1847
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.