Flemish Cistercian mystic, stigmatic, and saint. Name variations: Saint Lutgard; Saint Lutgardis. Born in Tongres (Belgium) in 1182; died in Aywières (near Brussels), on June 16, 1246.
Born of bourgeois parents, Lutgard joined the Benedictines of Saint-Trond in 1194 and became prioress of the convent in 1205. Finding the observance of the Benedictines too lax, she transferred to the Cistercian convent of Aywières in 1208. There, she engaged in three seven-year fasts in reparation for the heresy of the Albigensians (Catharists of Albi in southern France) then in full sway. Originally, the lower classes of the Albigensians and the Waldensians rebelled against clerical corruption in the Catholic Church. But when their nobles, who saw a chance to confiscate church land, became involved, Pope Innocent III proclaimed a crusade against them, called the Albigensian Crusade. The Passion (the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ) was the center of Lutgard's religious life. When she was 29, she received the stigmata, a spear wound, and carried the scar to her death; she also frequently experienced the sweat of blood and in 1235 became totally blind. Lutgard predicted the day of her death, which was June 16, 1246.
"Lutgard (1182–1246)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lutgard-1182-1246
"Lutgard (1182–1246)." Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. . Retrieved February 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lutgard-1182-1246
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.