an ancient royal burgh (1178) and centre for education with two universities by 1600, became a significant port and developed a range of industries after 1750. A diversified industrial economy including linen, cotton and woollens, shipbuilding and engineering, distilling, paper, white fish, and granite reduced the strains of economic change. In 1911 nearly half of total employment was in services, a sector which grew rapidly in the 20th cent. In 1970 oil was first tapped in the North Sea
, and in 1975 the Forties field came on stream; Aberdeen became the capital of the British offshore oil industry.
Aberdeen, University of
University of Aberdeen, at Aberdeen, Scotland; founded by the bishop of Aberdeen under the authority of a papal bull obtained 1494–95. It has faculties of arts and divinity; biological sciences; clinical medicine; economic and social sciences; engineering, mathematical and physical sciences; and law. The Institute of Terrestrial Ecology and several agricultural research institutes are affiliated with the university.