protection, practice of regulating imports and exports with the purpose of shielding domestic industries from foreign competition. To accomplish that end, certain imports may be excluded entirely, import quotas may be established, or bounties paid on certain exports. One method is to impose duties on imports (see tariff), increasing the price of the imported article, and making it less attractive to the consumer than the cheaper, domestically produced article. In the 20th cent. Britain used a system of protection known first as imperial preference and later as Commonwealth preference, designed to promote close economic relations between Britain and former colonial dependencies. The United States, however, followed the policy of protecting
from the beginning of its national history. Since bounties on exports are forbidden by the Constitution, the protective tariff was the chief instrument of such policy. A brief attempt was made in 1913 to lower duties, but after World War I tariff rates were raised to the highest point in U.S. history. Although American industries had grown to a position of great strength, it was still held that they needed protection from the cheaper labor and lower costs of production in many foreign countries.
To promote freer trade during the Great Depression, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt received authorization in 1934 to negotiate reciprocal trade agreements, reducing tariff rates on a far-reaching basis through the use of the most-favored-nation clause. After World War II, the United States played a leading role in the formation (1948) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and in negotiating the several rounds of multilateral tariff reductions, most recently (1986) the Uruguay round, which led to the formation of the World Trade Organization. Other important steps in the movement toward freer trade and away from protection include the formation of the European Economic Community (or Common Market; now part of European Union) in 1957 and the European Free Trade Association in 1959. In 1992, the United States, Canada, and Mexico negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created the world's largest trading zone.
Although the United States is no longer a high-tariff nation, it still has a number of restrictive import quotas that provide a definite limit on the quantity of a given commodity that can be imported from another nation. Japan, one of the world's major industrial nations, also has many import quotas. Such quotas, in addition to being more certain methods of protection than tariffs, can also be used to favor certain nations over others.
See W. M. Corden, Protection, Growth and Trade (1985); J. N. Bhagwati, Protectionism (1988).
529. Protection (See also Charms.)
- aegis protective mantle of Zeus given to Athena. [Gk. Myth.: Brewer Dictionary ]
- alum charm against evil eye. [Egyptian Folklore: Leach, 40]
- amethyst preserved soldiers from harm; gave them victory. [Gem Symbolism: Kunz, 58]
- bennet excludes the devil; used on door frames. [Medieval Folklore: Boland, 56]
- blood of the lamb used to mark houses of the Israelites so they could be passed over. [O.T.: Exodus 12:3–13]
- chrysoberyl guards against evil spirits. [Gem Symbolism: Kunz, 65]
- cross used to frighten away devils and protect from evil. [Christian Iconog.: Leach, 265]
- daisy provides protection against fairies. [Flower Symbolism: Briggs, 87]
- horseshoe hung on buildings as defense against fairies. [Br. Folklore: Briggs, 225]
- jacinth guards against plague and wounds. [Gem Symbolism: Kunz, 81]
- kolem rice designs drawn to attract guardianship of gods. [Hinduism: Binder, 61]
- magic flute Tamino’s guard against black magic. [Ger. Opera: Mozart, Magic Flute, Westerman, 102–104]
- malachite guards wearer from evil spirits, enchantments. [Gem Symbolism: Kunz, 97]
- mark of Cain God’s safeguard for Cain from potential slayers. [O.T.: Genesis 4:15]
- moly herb given by Hermes to Odysseus to ward off Circe’s spells. [Gk. Myth.: Odyssey ]
- rowan ash tree which guards against fairies and witches. [Br. Folklore: Briggs, 344]
- St. Benedict’s cross charm against disease and danger. [Christian Iconog.: Jobes, 386]
- St. Christopher medal to protect travelers. [Christian Hist.: NCE, 552]
- St. John’s wort defense against fairies, evil spirits, the Devil. [Br. Folklore: Briggs, 335–336]
- sard guards against incantations and sorcery. [Gem Symbolism: Kunz, 107]
- serpentine guards against bites of venomous creatures. [Gem Symbolism: Kunz, 108]
- wood knocking on it averts dire consequences. [Western Culture: Misc.]
pro·tect / prəˈtekt/ • v. [tr.] keep safe from harm or injury: he tried to protect Kelly from the attack| [intr.] certain vitamins may protect against heart disease. ∎ [often as adj.] (protected) aim to preserve (a threatened plant or animal species) by legislating against collecting or hunting. ∎ [often as adj.] (protected) restrict by law access to or development of (land) so as to preserve its natural state: logging is continuing in protected areas in violation of an international agreement. ∎ (often be protected) (of an insurance policy) promise to pay (someone) an agreed amount in the event of loss, injury, fire, theft, or other misfortune: in the event of your death, your family will be protected against any financial problems that may arise. ∎ Econ. shield (a domestic industry) from competition by imposing import duties on foreign goods. ∎ Comput. restrict access to or use of (data or a memory location): security products are designed to protect information from unauthorized access. ∎ provide funds to meet (a bill of exchange or commercial draft). DERIVATIVES: pro·tect·a·ble adj.
pro·tec·tion / prəˈtekshən/ • n. the action of protecting someone or something, or the state of being protected: the B vitamins give protection against infection his son was put under police protection. ∎ a person or thing that prevents someone or something from suffering harm or injury: the castle was built as protection against the Saxons | [in sing.] a protection against the evil eye. ∎ the cover provided by an insurance policy. ∎ (usu. protections) a legal or other formal measure intended to preserve civil liberties and rights. ∎ a document guaranteeing immunity from harm to the person specified in it. ∎ the practice of paying money to criminals so as to prevent them from attacking oneself or one's property: [as adj.] a protection racket. ∎ (also protection money) the money so paid to criminals, esp. on a regular basis. ∎ archaic used euphemistically to refer to the keeping of a mistress by her lover in a separate establishment: she was living under his lordship's protection at Gloucester Gate.
Protection ★½ 2001 (R)
Mobster Sal (Baldwin) and his family are relocated into the witness protection program and Sal gets a job with real estate broker Ted (Gallagher), who's putting together a lowincome housing project. But Sal can't resist using his past and brings in local crime boss Lujack (Tager) to finance the deal. 97m/C VHS, DVD . Stephen Baldwin, Peter Gallagher, Katie Griffin, Deborah Odell, Vlasta Vrana, Aron Tager; D: John Flynn; W: Jack Kelly; C: Marc Charlebois; M: Richard (Rick) Marvin. VIDEO
So protection XIV. — (O)F. or late L. protector XIV. — (O)F. — late L.; hence protectorate (-ATE1) XVII.