American biochemist and pharmacologist whose work with neurotransmitters provided important insight for the understanding of the nervous system. Building on the discoveries that chemicals like noradrenaline transmit nerve impulses, Axelrod found that certain enzymes could neutralize these neurotransmitters. This discovery showed how certain drugs may affect conditions like hypertension and schizophrenia. Axelrod served as the chief of pharmacology at the National Institute of Mental Health. He received the 1970 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine, which he shared with Bernard Katz and Ulf von Euler.