Franz Joseph Gall
Franz Joseph Gall
German physiologist and anatomist who was the originator of phrenology, the attempt to determine intelligence and personality from the shape of the skull. Gall was convinced that certain mental functions were centered in specific parts of the brain, and that the shape of a person's skull showed the degree of development of the various parts of his or her brain. His ideas were condemned by the Austrian government as anti-religious and he was forced out of the country in 1805. Though phrenology has been discredited, Gall's ideas about localized brain functions were later proven.
"Franz Joseph Gall." Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 16, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/franz-joseph-gall
"Franz Joseph Gall." Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. . Retrieved September 16, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/franz-joseph-gall
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.