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Neoptera (class insecta, subclass Pterygota) One of the two infraclasses (compare PALAEOPTERA) into which insects are placed according to the position in which they hold their wings when at rest. Members of the Neoptera fold their wings across their backs. This is the more advanced condition. The infraclass includes most modern insects. The distinction between the two infraclasses emerged in the Carboniferous, very early in insect evolution, and is known from fossils of that period.