Skip to main content

modular organism

modular organism An organism in which the zygote develops into a discrete unit which then produces more units like itself, rather than developing into a complete organism. Modular organisms (e.g. plants, fungi, sponges, etc.) usually have a branching structure and an overall shape that is highly variable and determined mainly by environmental influences. Mutations of cells along branches may lead to heterogeneity between different parts of the organism.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"modular organism." A Dictionary of Ecology. . 19 Jan. 2019 <>.

"modular organism." A Dictionary of Ecology. . (January 19, 2019).

"modular organism." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved January 19, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.