Skip to main content

Malthus, ThomasRobert

Malthus, ThomasRobert (1766–1834)An English mathematician and economist, who took holy orders in 1788 and was appointed in 1805 to the first professorship of political economy in Britain, at Haileybury College, founded by the East India Company, a position he occupied until his death. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the French Institute and Berlin Royal Academy. He is best remembered for An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the future improvement of society, written to refute the ideas on social and economic reform of William Godwin, the Marquis de Condorcet, and others, first published anonymously in 1798, with a much revised second edition in 1803 and a summary in 1830. Malthus maintained that human populations have the capacity to increase more rapidly than resources can be mobilized to sustain them, and their reproductive capacity is constrained by disease, hunger, and other forms of suffering produced by poverty. Attempts to alleviate poverty, therefore, can lead only to additional births and further suffering. See Malthusianism.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Malthus, ThomasRobert." A Dictionary of Ecology. . 19 Mar. 2019 <>.

"Malthus, ThomasRobert." A Dictionary of Ecology. . (March 19, 2019).

"Malthus, ThomasRobert." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved March 19, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.