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lithophile Applied to elements with a strong affinity for oxygen and which concentrate in the Earth's crust in silicate rather than metal or sulphide minerals; or to elements with greater free energy of oxidation per gram of oxygen than iron. They occur as oxides, and especially in the silicate minerals which make up 99% of the crust. Examples of lithophile elements are Al, Ti, Ba, Na, K, Mn, Fe, Ca, and Mg. Compare ATMOPHILE; BIOPHILE; CHALCOPHILE; and SIDEROPHILE.