Bufonidae (toads; class Amphibia, order Anura) A family of squat-bodied amphibians which have short, powerful limbs for crawling. The skin is generally dry and warty. Teeth are absent. Vertebrae are procoelous, the pectoral girdle bowshaped. A Bidder's organ is present in males. Bufonids are usually nocturnal or crepuscular land-dwellers, only breeding in water. Sexual dimorphism (females larger than males) occurs in Bufo bufo (common toad or European toad); their colour is changeable, red-brown to grey, and males develop nuptial pads on three inner fingers prior to mating. B. calamita (natterjack toad) is tolerant of brackish water; its hind limbs are short and it runs rather than jumps. B. viridis (green toad or changeable toad) has a greyish body with green patches and red warts; it may breed in brackish water and tolerates dry surroundings. B. marinus (marine toad, known as cane toad in Australia), of tropical America and introduced into Caribbean islands, Hawaii, Australia, and New Guinea (in most of which places it has become a pest), is the largest bufonid, females reaching 25 cm in length; it is mottled yellow and brown, with red warts, and has large parotoid glands that secrete a powerful toxin. There are some 300 species, found native in all continents except Australia and Antarctica.
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