Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL)
█ K. LEE LERNER
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), located near the University of California Berkeley campus, is operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Founded in 1931 by Nobel Prize-winning physicist Ernest Orlando Lawrence, LBL was designed to be a model for use of the interdisciplinary approach to scientific research. Initially dedicated to World War II military projects, in 1942, LBL became the first in a string of federal laboratories. Research at LBL brings scientists from a variety of disciplines to work on military and non-military funded projects. LBL scientists have developed a number of technologies related to national security interests, technology advancement, and environmental research.
LBL researchers developed a hand-held radiation detector that was able to distinguish between radioactive isotopes intended for biomedical research or clinical medical applications, and the form of isotopes most likely to be used by terrorists to construct a "dirty bomb" (a bomb that spreads radioactive materials by a non-nuclear explosion). The Cryo3 detector, developed in collaboration with researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, employs radiation spectrometry to identify radioactive materials. The battery-powered unit utilizes a high purity germanium crystal that absorbs photons emanating from isotopes. By comparing differences in charge characteristics, the detector can further characterize both quantitative and qualitative attributes of a radioactive source. The development of new generations of detectors useful in identifying radioactive, chemical, and biological weapons detection remains a research interest. LBL researchers also developed a highly portable device capable of detecting explosives.
Although LBL's early work was heavily devoted to weapons research, in addition to making direct contributions to the technology of security, LBL scientists now engage in—and as an institution emphasize—a variety of research projects that advance both basic science and industry related projects to improve the quality of life.
The scientific divisions at LBL provide evidence of the emphasis on both physical and biological sciences. As of March 2003, LBL maintained divisions in Accelerator and Fusion Research; Advanced Light Sources; Chemical Sciences; Computational Research; Computing Sciences; Earth Sciences; Engineering; Environment, Health and Safety; Environmental Energy Technologies; Genomics; Information Technologies and Services; Life Sciences; Materials Sciences; NERSC (National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center), Nuclear Sciences; Physical Biosciences; and Physics.
LBL scientists contributions to medical science and biotechnology include development of radiation therapies for treating cancer and research into HDL and LDL cholesterol physiology. LBL projects have also allowed a more complete understanding of how radon exposure increases cancer risk. Radon (usually in the form of the Radon-222 isotope) is a colorless and odorless radioactive gas formed from radioactive decay. The most common geologic source of radon derives from the decay of uranium. Radon is commonly found at low levels in widely dispersed crustal formations, soil, and water samples. Produced underground, radon moves toward the surface and eventually diffuses into the atmosphere or in groundwater. To some extent, radon can be detected throughout the United States. Specific geologic formations, however, frequently present elevated concentration of radon that may pose a significant health risk.
Scientists at LBL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories California have also collaborated on the development of environmental remediation technologies useful in the cleanup of military disposal sites (e.g., the nearby Alameda Naval Air Station). LBL scientists also support the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) (hosting the most powerful computer in the U.S. used for unclassified research) and an 88-inch cyclotron used to advance basic nuclear science.
█ FURTHER READING:
Berkeley Lab. 88" Organization. 88-inch cyclotron. <http://www-nsd.lbl.gov/LBL-Programs/nsd/user88/> (March 23,2003).
Berkeley Lab Research News. "DOE's NERSC Center deploys 10 teraflops per second IBM supercomputer." March 10, 2003. <http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/NERSC-10-teraflop-IBM.html.> (March 23, 2003).
United States Department of Energy, Office of Science. National Laboratories and User Facilities. <http://www.sc.doe.gov/Sub/Organization/Map/national_labs_and_userfacilities.htm> (March 23, 2003).
United States Department of Homeland Security. Research & Technology. <http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?theme=27&content=374> (March 23, 2003).
Argonne National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory
DOE (United States Department of Energy)
Environmental Measurements Laboratory
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
Los Alamos National Laboratory
NNSA (United States National Nuclear Security Administration)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Plum Island Animal Disease Center
Sandia National Laboratories
"Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL)." Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 16, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lawrence-berkeley-national-laboratory-lbl
"Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL)." Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. . Retrieved November 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lawrence-berkeley-national-laboratory-lbl
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, scientific research centers run by the Univ. of California, located in Berkeley, Calif., and Livermore, Calif., respectively. They are named for their founder, physicist Ernest O. Lawrence, who organized the Berkeley laboratory in the early 1930s and the Livermore laboratory in 1952. They are administered by the Univ. of California with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy. Formerly these two laboratories were run as a single research center known as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley and Livermore.
At Lawrence Berkeley an international staff carries out fundamental research and graduate study in physics, nuclear chemistry, biology and medicine (more recently including genetic mapping), chemical biodynamics, and inorganic materials. Since most of the work is centered around the study of atomic nuclei, the greatest portion of research involves the use of four major particle accelerators. In 1971 research was also formally instituted there in environmental problems.
At Lawrence Livermore applied research is carried out on nuclear weaponry, peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, the effects of artificially produced radiation on living organisms, and controlled thermonuclear reactions. The laboratory maintains a test site for nuclear explosives near Las Vegas, Nev. Basic research, partly in support of the applied work, is conducted in chemistry, physics, biology, and computer sciences. Since the end of the cold war the research focus has increasingly diversified, with a shift toward environmental (global warming, climate simulation), energy, computer, laser, biomedical (genetic mapping), and chaos theory issues.
"Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 16, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lawrence-berkeley-national-laboratory
"Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lawrence-berkeley-national-laboratory
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: see Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
"Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 16, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lawrence-livermore-national-laboratory
"Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lawrence-livermore-national-laboratory