Skip to main content
Select Source:

ICL

ICL International Computers Ltd. As ICT, International Computers and Tabulators Ltd., ICL was one of a considerable number of British computer companies active in the late 1950s and the 1960s. The computer manufacturing interests of Ferranti and Elliott Brothers were taken over by ICT in the 1960s, at which point the name ICL was adopted; at the same time, the computing interests of English Electric, Leo Computers, and Marconi were merged into a single company, which was also taken over by ICL, in the 1970s. In 1984, ICL itself became a wholly owned subsidiary of the UK company, Standard Telephones and Cable Ltd (STC). It ceased to be a UK company in the early 1990s, when it was taken over by the Japanese company, Fujitsu. Its identity gradually disappeared and the name was finally abandoned in 2002, when the operation was rechristened Fujitsu Services. The company's main activity in its later years was the provision of outsourcing services, particularly for large government contracts. It was the difficulties associated with some of these contracts that ultimately led to the disappearance of the ICL name.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"ICL." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ICL." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/icl

"ICL." A Dictionary of Computing. . Retrieved September 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/icl

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

ICL

ICL International Computers Ltd
• International Confederation of Labour

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"ICL." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ICL." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/icl

"ICL." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Retrieved September 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/icl

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.