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bitumen

bitumen. Type of mineral pitch used for mortar, and waterproofing, similar to as-phalt(e), called bitumen judaicum.

2. Natural pitchy substance similar to tar consisting mostly of hydrocarbons varying in colour and hardness, which melts when heated and sets hard. When it is mixed (either naturally occurring or artificially) with limestone, shale, etc., it is called rock asphalt and has been used for road-surfacing from the late C18.

Bibliography

W. McKay (1957)

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bitumen

bitumen (bĬtyōō´mən) a generic term referring to flammable, brown or black mixtures of tarlike hydrocarbons, derived naturally or by distillation from petroleum. It can be in the form of a viscous oil to a brittle solid, including asphalt, tars, and natural mineral waxes. Substances containing bitumens are called bituminous, e.g., bituminous coal, tar, or pitch.

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bitumen

bitumen (asphalt) Material used for roadmaking and for proofing timber against rot. It consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic chemical compounds. Some bitumen occurs naturally in pitch lakes, notably in Trinidad. The material is also made by distilling tar from coal or wood.

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bitumen

bi·tu·men / biˈt(y)oōmən; bī-/ • n. a black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons obtained naturally or as a residue from petroleum distillation. It is used for road surfacing and roofing. DERIVATIVES: bi·tu·mi·nous adj.

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Bitumen

Bitumen

Bitumen was greatly used in magical practices. Images for the purpose of sympathetic magic were often made of this sub-stance, and it was also used in ceremonies for the cleansing of houses in which any uncleanness had appearedbeing spread on the floor like clay.

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bitumen

bitumen Naturally occurring, inflammable, solid or semi-solid hydrocarbons, black or dark brown in colour, with characteristic pitch odour, and burning with a smoky flame. Group name for asphalts, mineral waxes, and related substances.

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bitumen

bitumen XV. — L.
So bituminous XVII. — F. bitumineux — L. bitūminōsus.

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bitumen

bitumenexamine, famine, gamin •admin • jasmine • Yasmin • Brahmin •women • specimen • madwomen •clanswomen • charwomen •craftswomen • draughtswomen •gentlewomen • Welshwomen •Frenchwomen •airwomen, chairwomen •laywomen • stateswomen •saleswomen • policewomen •kinswomen • Englishwomen •businesswomen • Irishwomen •congresswomen • countrywomen •jurywomen • servicewomen •tribeswomen •Scotswomen, yachtswomen •forewomen • horsewomen •sportswomen • oarswomen •councilwomen • townswomen •noblewomen • spokeswomen •frontierswomen • alderwomen •anchorwomen • washerwomen •Ulsterwomen • churchwomen •catechumen, illumine, lumen •bitumen •albumen, albumin •Duralumin • cumin • Benjamin •theremin • vitamin •determine, ermine, vermin

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Bitumen

BITUMEN

BITUMEN (Heb. חֵמָר, hemar and כֹּפֶר, kofer; lxx), a black, flammable substance which becomes viscous and absorbent on heating. It occurs in almost every part of the world, including Mesopotamia, Iran, and Israel, and is found in various natural forms: in pure form, as in the Dead Sea, where it floats and collects along the coast; as an ore in sandstone; and in semi-solid and fluid forms. The "pits" in the Valley of Siddim referred to in Genesis 14:10 were probably bitumen quarries. In Mesopotamia bitumen was used in building as a mortar which at the same time soaked into the porous bricks, making them stronger. Bitumen was employed too for waterproofing boats, for constructing model boats for cultic purposes, and for sealing water ducts and irrigation canals. It was used in this way to caulk Noah's ark (Gen. 6:14) and the basket which carried Moses (Ex. 2:3). Whether used for strengthening bricks or for sealing against water, bitumen was mixed with sand, chalk, plaster, or with its own ore, since in its pure form it has a low melting point and will not harden unless amalgamated with another mineral.

bibliography:

em, 3 (1965), 187–90 (incl. bibl.); Staples, in: idb, 1 (1962), 444.

[Ze'ev Yeivin]

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