Skip to main content

Bituminous Coal Act 50 Stat. 72 (1937)

BITUMINOUS COAL ACT 50 Stat. 72 (1937)

After carter v. carter coal company (1936), Congress restored regulation of bituminous coal in interstate commerce. The new act, designed to control the interstate sale and distribution of soft coal and to protect interstate commerce, levied a nineteen and one-half percent tax on all producers but remitted payment to those who accepted the new code. Price-fixing provisions constituted the crux of the act; Congress did not reenact any labor provisions, although it encouraged free collective bargaining.

The act established a National Bituminous Coal Commission to supervise an elaborate procedure for setting minimum prices. Unfair competition or sales below established prices violated the code. The act provided extensive procedural due process and several means of enforcement, including cease-and-desist orders and private suits carrying treble damage awards for injured competitors.

An 8–1 Supreme Court sustained the act in Sunshine Anthracite Coal Company v. Adkins (1940). Conceding the tax was "a sanction to enforce the regulatory provisions of the Act," the majority held that Congress might nevertheless "impose penalties in aid of the exercise of any of its enumerated powers." The Court thus upheld the act under the commerce clause, declaring that the method of regulation was for legislative determination.

David Gordon

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bituminous Coal Act 50 Stat. 72 (1937)." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. . 22 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Bituminous Coal Act 50 Stat. 72 (1937)." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. . (April 22, 2019).

"Bituminous Coal Act 50 Stat. 72 (1937)." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. . Retrieved April 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.