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isomorphism

isomorphism (ī´səmôr´fĬzəm), of minerals, similarity of crystal structure between two or more distinct substances. Sodium nitrate and calcium sulfate are isomorphous, as are the sulfates of barium, strontium, and lead. Crystals of isomorphous substances are almost identical. The substances sometimes crystallize together in a solid solution. Isomorphous substances usually have similar chemical formulas, and the polarizability and ratio of anion and cation radii are generally comparable (see ion). Isomorphism was discovered (c.1820) by Eilhard Mitscherlich, who stated the principle that isomorphous substances have similar chemical formulas; this principle was used by J. J. Berzelius in determining chemical formulas and combining weights. See polymorphism; mineral; crystal.

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isomorphism

isomorphism A homomorphism that, when viewed as a function, is a bijection. If φ : G → H

is an isomorphism then the algebras G and H are said to be isomorphic and so exhibit the same algebraic properties. Isomorphic trees are trees that are isomorphic as directed graphs.

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isomorphous

isomorphous Applied to two compounds having the same, or nearly the same, crystal form and containing ions of approximately the same size or relative size. Isomorphous compounds may show solid solution. Compare ISOTYPIC.

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isomorphism

isomorphism (I-soh-mor-fizm) n. the condition of two or more objects being alike in shape or structure.
isomorphic, isomorphous adj.

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