Skip to main content
Select Source:

ribonuclease

ribonuclease (ry-boh-new-kli-ayz) n. an enzyme, located in the lysosomes of cells, that splits RNA at specific places in the molecule.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ribonuclease

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Retrieved September 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ribonuclease

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

ribonuclease

ribonuclease An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of RNA, resulting in the formation of mono- and oligonucleotides.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ribonuclease

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved September 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ribonuclease

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

ribonuclease

ribonuclease An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of RNA, resulting in the formation of mono- and oligonucleotides.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ribonuclease-0

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved September 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ribonuclease-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

ribonuclease

ribonuclease See RNase.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ribonuclease-1

"ribonuclease." A Dictionary of Biology. . Retrieved September 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ribonuclease-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ribonuclease

Ribonuclease

Ribonuclease (RNase) is the designation given to a group of enzymes that change ribonucleic acid (RNA) by severing phosphorus-oxygen bonds.

The best-studied RNase is from the pancreas of cattle. Its main portion, called ribonuclease A, was the first enzyme whose entire sequence of amino acids was determined. It was also the first protein to be totally synthesized from amino acid.

In the living cell, RNases may break down RNA that has served its purpose, so that the components can be used again. RNases may also play a part in forming an RNA molecule for a specific purpose, such as messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA. The roles of other RNases are still unclear.

Some RNases act only on specific groups, such as pyrimidine bases. Some RNases work only on specific RNA structures. Exoribonucleases act only the free ends of RNA molecules; endoribonucleases work elsewhere in the molecule. Some RNases work on RNA only in certain directions; that is, proceeding along the RNA strand in one or another direction.

Ribonuclease P requires an RNA component in order to be active. RNase H functions by breaking down a copy of the RNA molecule when it is no longer needed for viral reproduction. It is a component of reverse transcriptase, made by retroviruses (viruses with RNA genetic material). Mammals cells also produce RNase inhibitors, which keep RNases from breaking down RNA molecules.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ribonuclease." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ribonuclease." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ribonuclease-0

"Ribonuclease." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved September 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ribonuclease-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ribonuclease

Ribonuclease

Ribonuclease (RNase) is the name of a group of enzymes that change ribonucleic acid (RNA) by digesting (cutting) phosphorus-oxygen bonds. The RNases are the subject of wide investigation in the laboratory, though scientists are still learning the many ways they work in living cells.

The best-studied RNase is from the pancreas of cattle. Its main portion, called ribonuclease A, was the first enzyme whose entire sequence of amino acids was determined. It was also the first protein to be totally synthesized from amino acid .

Pancreatic ribonuclease was first described in 1920 by the American biochemist Walter Jones (1865-1935), who showed that it could digest yeast RNA. It was partially purified in 1938 by the American microbiologist René Jules Dubos (1901-1982) and isolated in crystalline form two years later by M. Kunitz. RNase's sequence and three-dimensional structure were determined in 1962 by the American biochemists Christian Anfinsen (1916-), Stanford Moore (1913-1982), and William H. Stein (1911-1980), who received the 1972 Nobel prize in chemistry for the accomplishment.

Anfinsen was born in Monessen, Pennsylvania, received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Harvard University in 1943, and joined the staff of the National Institutes of Health. He wanted to learn how the peptide (protein) chain was instructed to fold into its three-dimensional shape. By discovering the amino acid sequence in parts of the molecule , he showed that the sequence itself was all the information needed for folding.

Stein and Moore performed their sequencing work at Rockefeller University. Stein, from New York City, received a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1938. Moore was born in Chicago, grew up in Nashville, Tennessee, and earned a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1938. The two scientists wanted to learn how ribonuclease's structure was related to its activity. An active site is the portion of the enzyme that binds to the reacting substance (the substrate). First Stein and Moore discovered that the amino acids at the active site—were much more active in the molecule than in free form. They discovered how to chemically identify the active amino acids within the chain, and finally, determined the entire amino acid sequence.

In 1968, ribonuclease was synthesized by two different methods. Ralph Hirschmann (1922-) at Merck Sharp and Dohme Inc. Research Laboratories synthesized individual proteins and then chained them together. Bruce Merrifield (1921-), at Rockefeller University, automated the synthesis process by attaching the amino acids one by one to a solid plastic matrix, which eliminated intermediate steps. For developing this process, Merrifield received the 1984 Nobel prize in chemistry.

In the living cell , RNases may break down RNA that has served its purpose, so that the components can be used again. Or RNases may play a part in forming an RNA molecule for a specific purpose, such as messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA. The roles of other RNases are still unknown.

Some RNases act only on specific groups, such as pyrimidine bases. Some RNases work only on specific RNA structures. Exoribonucleases act only the free ends of RNA molecules; endoribonucleases work elsewhere in the molecule. Some RNases work on RNA from the 5' to 3' direction, others from 3' to 5'(3' and 5' are locations where nucleotide bases attach to phosphates and sugars).

Ribonuclease P requires an RNA component in order to be active. Its discovery in the late 1970s by the American biophysicist Sidney Altman (1939-) earned him part of the 1989 Nobel prize in chemistry. RNase H functions by breaking down a copy of the RNA molecule when it is no longer needed for viral reproduction. It is a component of reverse transcriptase, made by retroviruses (viruses with RNA genetic material).

Mammals' cells also produce RNase inhibitors, which keep RNases from breaking down RNA molecules.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ribonuclease." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ribonuclease." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 26, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ribonuclease

"Ribonuclease." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved September 26, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ribonuclease

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.