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biochemistry

biochemistry, science concerned chiefly with the chemistry of biological processes; it attempts to utilize the tools and concepts of chemistry, particularly organic and physical chemistry, for elucidation of the living system. The science has been variously referred to as physiological chemistry and as biological chemistry. Molecular biology, a term first used in 1950, is used to describe the area of research, closely related to and often overlapping biochemistry, conducted by biologists whose approach to and interest in biology are principally at the molecular level of organization. The related field of biophysics brings to biology the techniques and attitudes of the physicist. Cell biology is concerned with the organization and functioning of the individual cell and depends greatly on biochemical techniques. As the study of life forms demonstrated similar or even identical processes occurring in widely divergent species, it has taken the biochemist to unravel the underlying chemical basis for these phenomena. Biochemists study such things as the structures and physical properties of biological molecules, including the proteins, the carbohydrates, the lipids, and the nucleic acids; the mechanisms of enzyme action; the chemical regulation of metabolism; the molecular basis of genetic expression; the chemistry of vitamins; chemoluminescence; biological oxidation; and energy utilization in the cell. The study of the chemistry of the immune response offers the possibility of treatment and cure for such diseases as AIDS and lupus.

See L. Stryer, Biochemistry (3d ed. 1988); C. K. Mathews and K. E. van Holde, Biochemistry (1990); G. Zubay, Biochemistry (3d ed. 1993).

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Biochemist

Biochemist

A biochemist is a scientist primarily concerned with the chemistry of biological processes. The four main branches of biochemistry are: a) nucleic acids, b) proteins , c) carbohydrates , and d) lipids . Most biochemists will generally specialize in one of these areas. The training and scientific focus of a biochemist is what distinguishes him or her from others in related disciplines (molecular genetics, cell biology, analytic chemistry, and biophysics). Biochemists deal chiefly with scientific research of specific biochemical structures, interactions, or reactions. Two specific examples of research biochemists are enzymologists, who study catalytic proteins, and analytical biochemists, who may, for example, develop new DNA separation technologies.

Minimal training for a technician-level position in biochemistry generally requires a B.S. in biochemistry or chemistry, while those wishing more professional autonomy should attain a graduate degree. Ph.D.-level biochemists achieve the greatest autonomy. Before attaining their first independent position they will usually undergo additional training after completion of their in Ph.D., a postdoctoral position.

Biochemists work in the biopharmaceutical and agricultural biotechnology industries, academia, clinical laboratories, and a variety of regulatory and military posts in government.

see also Biotechnology; Carbohydrates; DNA; Lipids; Pharmacologist

Michael L. Gleason

Bibliography

American Chemical Society: ChemCenter. <http://www.acs.org/servlet/ACSHomePage>.

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biochemistry

biochemistry Science of the chemistry of life. It attempts to use the methods and concepts of organic and physical chemistry to investigate living matter and systems. Biochemists study the structure and properties of all the constituents of living matter (such as fats, proteins, enzymes, hormones, vitamins, dna, cells, membranes, and organs) together with the complex reactions and pathways of these in metabolism. Biochemistry is an essential part of medical and agricultural research.

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biochemistry

biochemistry (by-oh-kem-istri) n. the study of the chemical processes and substances occurring in living things.
biochemical adj. —biochemist n.

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biochemist

biochemistalarmist, palmist, psalmist •biochemist, chemist •extremist • animist • pessimist •legitimist • optimist • rhymist •conformist, reformist •bigamist, polygamist •misogamist • alchemist • Islamist •columnist • dynamist •agronomist, autonomist, economist, ergonomist, physiognomist •palindromist •anatomist, atomist •epitomist • totemist • taxidermist

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