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Quasar

Quasar

Quasars are compact objects located far outside of our galaxy. They are so bright they shine more intensely than 100 galaxies combined, but they are so distant their light takes several billion years to reach Earth. Since the 1960s, astronomers have begun to come closer to the truth about these unusual phenomena in space.

The word quasar is a combined form of quasi-stellar radio sources. These objects are so named because they have been observed through radio telescopes. However, only about 10 percent of all quasars emit radio waves. The energy coming from quasars also includes visible light, infrared and ultraviolet radiation, X rays, and possibly even gamma rays.

Words to Know

Big bang theory: Theory that explains the beginning of the universe as a tremendous explosion from a single point that occurred 12 to 15 billion years ago.

Black hole: Remains of a massive star that has burned out its nuclear fuel and collapsed under tremendous gravitational force into a single point of infinite mass and gravity.

Gamma rays: Short-wavelength, high-energy radiation formed either by the decay of radioactive elements or by nuclear reactions.

Infrared radiation: Electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength shorter than radio waves but longer than visible light that takes the form of heat.

Light-year: The distance light travels in one year, roughly 5.88 trillion miles (9.46 trillion kilometers).

Radiation: Energy transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves or subatomic particles.

Radio telescope: A telescope that uses radio waves to create images of celestial objects.

Radio waves: Longest form of electromagnetic radiation, measuring up to six miles from peak to peak.

Redshift: Shift of an object's light spectrum toward the red end of the visible light rangean indication that the object is moving away from the observer.

Spectrum: Range of individual wavelengths of radiation produced when light is broken down by the process of spectroscopy.

Ultraviolet radiation: Electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength just shorter than the violet (shortest wavelength) end of the visible light spectrum.

In the early 1960s, American astronomer Allan Sandage photographed an area of the sky and noticed that one star had a very unusual spectrum. (A spectrum is the diagram of individual wavelengths of radiation from a star.) Most stars emit radiation consistent with the spectrum of ionized (electrically charged) hydrogen, the most abundant element on the surface of stars. This star, however, had a spectrum that seemed to reveal none of the elements known to exist in stars. The wavelengths at which it emitted radiation were heavily skewed toward the red-end range of visible light.

Such a skewed spectrum is known as redshift and is an indication of an object moving away from the point of observation. The greater the redshift, the faster the object is moving away. And as an object moves farther away, it picks up speed, increasing its redshift.

In 1963, Dutch astronomer Maarten Schmidt correctly identified the star's strange spectrum as that of a normal star with a high redshift. His calculations placed it an amazing two billion light-years away. In order to be observable from Earth at that distance, the object could not be a star, but had to be something larger, like a galaxy.

Schmidt measured the diameter of the object and learned that although it was emitting as much energy as one trillion suns, it was only about the size of the solar system. The brightest quasar to date, located in the constellation Draco, shines with the light of 1.5 quadrillion suns.

Origin of quasars

Astronomers formally believed that a quasar is found in a particular type of galaxy and is formed during the collision between two distant galaxies. When this happens, one galaxy creates a black hole in the other with the mass of about 100 million suns. (A black hole is a single point of infinite mass and gravity.) Gas, dust, and stars are continually pulled into the black hole. The temperature in the black hole then rises to hundreds of millions of degrees, and the black hole spews out tremendous quantities of radiation.

This theory was turned upside down in late 1996 when the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) took pictures of galaxies that are hosts to quasars. The pictures revealed that there was no pattern to the shapes and sizes of the galaxies. The pictures also showed that while many of the galaxies were colliding with each other as scientists had theorized, almost as many galaxies showed no signs of collision.

Quasars are the most distant, fastest, and most luminous large objects known in the universe. Because they are so far away, they give us a glimpse of the early universe. Since a light-year is a measure of the distance light travels in space in one year, viewing an object one billion lightyears away is really like looking one billion years back in time. Some quasars are so distant they are virtually at the edge of time. They are relics from the period following the big bang event that created the universe some 12 to 15 billion years ago.

The most distant quasar known was discovered in November 1999 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's BATSE (Burst And Transient Source Experiment) satellite. Known by the scientific name 4C 71.07, this quasar appears to be about 11 billion light-years away. We therefore see quasar 4C 70.71 as it existed perhaps as little as a billion years after the big bang. That time period seems long by human standards, but it is near infancy by standards of the universe.

[See also Big bang theory; Black hole; Galaxy; Redshift ]

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quasar

quasar (kwā´sär), one of a class of blue celestial objects having the appearance of stars when viewed through a telescope and currently believed to be the most distant and most luminous objects in the universe; the name is shortened from quasi-stellar radio source (QSR). Quasars were discovered as the visible counterparts of certain discrete celestial sources of radio waves (see radio astronomy). Similar starlike objects that do not emit radio waves were subsequently discovered and named quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). Although their visible light is faint, the quasars are optically brighter than the galaxies with which radio sources had been identified before 1963. Before their spectra were studied carefully, it was believed that the quasars were stars in our galaxy. However, the lines in their spectra have enormous red shifts that seem to imply that they are receding from the Milky Way with speeds as great as 95% of the speed of light. Only shifts toward the red end of the spectrum have been observed for quasars; blue-shifted ones that would indicate a quasar approaching our galaxy have not yet been found. If quasars were simply objects being ejected from nearby galaxies at high speeds, and not the distant objects they appear to be, then some would have blue shifts. If Hubble's law for the expansion of the universe is extrapolated to include the quasars, they would be many billion light-years away and consequently as luminous intrinsically as 1,000 galaxies combined. To account for such brilliant light, astronomers believe that quasars are supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, releasing energy by the accretion of matter through a rotating viscous disk (see cosmology).

See H. L. Shipman, Black Holes, Quasars, and the Universe (2d ed. 1980).

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quasar

quasar (quasi-stellar object) In astronomy, an object that appears to be a massive, highly compressed, extremely powerful source of radio and light waves, characterized by a large red shift. If such red shifts are due to the Doppler effect, it can be deduced that quasars are more remote than any other objects previously identified; many are receding at velocities greater than half the speed of light. Their energy may result from the gravitational collapse of a galaxy or from many supernovas exploding in quick succession, although there seems to be no reason why such events should be occurring.

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quasar

qua·sar / ˈkwāˌzär/ • n. Astron. a massive and extremely remote celestial object, emitting exceptionally large amounts of energy, and typically having a starlike image in a telescope. It has been suggested that quasars contain massive black holes and may represent a stage in the evolution of some galaxies.

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quasar

quasarCésar, quasar

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quasar

quasar (ˈkweɪzɑː) Astronomy quasistellar object

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Quasar

Quasar

The discovery of quasars

Modern observation and interpretation of quasars

Resources

Quasi-stellar radio sources (quasars) are the most distant cosmic objects observed by astronomers. Although not visible to the naked eye, quasars are also among the most energetic of cosmic phenomena. The word quasar was first used by Chinese-American astrophysicist Hong-Yee Chiu in 1964 while describing some interestingly bright objects in interstellar space.

Although some quasars may be physically smaller in size than Earths solar system, some quasars are calculated to be brighter than hundreds of galaxies combined. Quasars and active galaxies appear to be related phenomena, each associated with massive rotating black holes in their central region. As a type of active galaxy, the enormous energy output of quasars can be explained using the theory of general relativity.

The great distance of quasars means that the light observed coming from them was produced when the universe was very young. Because of the finite speed of light, large cosmic distances translate to looking back in time. The observation of quasars at large distances and of their nearby scarcity argues that quasars were much more common in the early universe. Correspondingly, quasars may also represent

the earliest stages of galactic evolution. This change in the universe over time (e.g., specifically the rate of quasar formation) contradicted steady-state cosmological models that relied on a universe that was the same in all directions (when averaged over a large span of space) and at all times. Along with the discovery of ubiquitous cosmic background radiation, the discovery of quasars and tilted the cosmological argument in favor of the Big Bang based cosmological models.

The discovery of quasars

In 1932, American engineer Karl Janskey (1905 1945) discovered existence of radio waves emanating from beyond the solar system. By the mid-1950s, an increasing number of astronomers using radio telescopes sought explanations for mysterious radio emissions from optically dim stellar sources.

In 1962, British radio astronomer Cyril Hazard used Earths Moon as an occultive shield to discover strong radio emissions traceable to the constellation Virgo. Optical telescopes pinpointed a faint star-like object (subsequently designated quasar 3C2733rd Cambridge Catalog, 273rd radio source) as the source of the emissions. Of greater interest was an unusual emissionspectrum found associated with 3C273.

American astronomer Allan Rex Sandage (1926) first reported several faint star-like objects as optical counterparts to radio sources in 1960. In 1963, Dutch-American astronomer Maarten Schmidt (1929) explained the abnormal spectrum from 3C273 as evidence of a highly redshifted spectrum. Redshift describes the Doppler-like shift of spectral emission lines toward longer (hence, redder) wavelengths in objects moving away from an observer. Observers measure the light coming from objects moving away from them as redshifted (i.e., at longer wavelengths and at a lower frequency when the light was emitted). Conversely, observers measure the light coming from objects moving toward them as blueshifted (i.e., at shorter wavelengths and at a higher frequency when the light was emitted). Most importantly, the determination of the amount of an objects redshift allows the calculation of a recession velocity. Moreover, because the recession rate increases with distance, the recession velocity is a function (known as the Hubble relation) of the distance to the receding object. After 3C273, many other quasars were discovered with similarly redshifted spectra.

Schmidts calculation of the redshift of the 3C273 spectrum meant that 3C273 was approximately three billion light-years away from the Earth. It became immediately apparent that, if 3C273 was so distant, it had to be many thousands of times more luminous than a normal galaxy for the light to appear as bright as it did from such a great distance. Refined calculations involving the luminosity of 3C273 indicate that, although dim to optical astronomers, the quasar is actually two trillion times as bright as the Sun. The high redshift of 3C273 also implied a great velocity of recession measuring one-tenth the speed of light. As of 2006, the observed redshifts of quasars have ranged from 0.06 to 6.4

Modern observation and interpretation of quasars

Astronomers now assert that quasars represent a class of galaxies with extremely energetic centers. Large radio emissions seem most likely associated with large black holes with large amounts of matter available to enter the accretion disk. In fact, prior to more direct observations late in the twentieth century, the discovery of quasars provided at least tacit proof of the existence of black holes. Black holes form around a singularity (the remnant of a collapsed massive stars) with a gravitational field so intense that not even light can escape. Located outside the black hole is the accretion disk, an area of intense radiation emitted as matter heats and accelerates toward the black holes event horizon. Further, as electrons in the accretion disk are accelerated to near light speed, they are influenced by a strong magnetic field to emit quasar-like radio waves in a process termed synchrotron radiation. Electromagnetic waves similar to the electromagnetic waves emanating from quasars are observed on Earth when physicists pass high-energy electrons through synchrotron particle accelerators. Studies of Quasar 3C273 and other quasars identified jets of radiation blasting tens of thousands of light-years into space.

In addition to radio and visible light emissions, some quasars emit light in other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum including ultraviolet, infrared, x ray, and gamma-ray regions. In 1979, an x-ray quasar was found to have a redshift of 3.2, indicating a recession velocity equaling 97% the speed of light. As of the 2000s, the maximum redshift is at 6.4.

Not all quasars or active galaxies are alike. Although they seem optically similar to energetic quasars, at least 90% of active galaxies appear to be radio quiet. Accordingly, Seyfert galaxies or quasi-stellar objects (QSO) may be radio silent or emit electromagnetic radiation at greatly reduced levels. More than 1,500 quasars have now been identified as distant QSO, while over 100,000 quasars have been identified as of 2006. One hypothesis accounts for these quiet quasars by linking them to smaller black holes, or to black holes in regions of space with less matter available for consumption.

Observations have shown that quasars are extra-galactic, but many questions about their distances and nature stirred great interest among astronomers in the latter half of the twentieth century and now into the twenty-first century. In fact, as late as the 1990s, scientists were not even sure about their origins. Assuming that modern astronomical theory holds true for these bodies, quasars are the most distant, and from their brightness as seen from Earth, also, the most luminous objects known. The most luminous ones are thousands of times more energetic than larger, luminous galaxies such as the Milky Way and Messier 31. In spite of this, quasar brightnesses are quite variable, changing in times of hours and sometimes doubling their luminosities in as short a timespan as a week. This means that the main source or sources of their luminosity must be situated in a volume of space not much larger than a solar system, which light can cross in 12 hours. This is an enormous power source (luminosity) to fit into such a relatively small volume.

Astrophysics supplies two possible sources for such enormous energy from such small regions. They are:

  • Matter falling into an enormous black hole with a mass on the order of 10 solar masses or more, where much of the gravitational energy released during the matters infall towards the black hole is converted into light and other radiation in an accretion disk of matter surrounding the black hole.
  • The annihilation of ordinary matter (electrons, protons, etc.) and antimatter (positrons, etc.) as they collide at enormous rates.

The first of those is favored today by most astronomers, because there is independent evidence for the existence of such massive black holes in galaxies. The second possibility would produce enormous intensities of gamma radiation at definite energies (wavelengths); these have not been observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) spacecraft that NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) launched into orbit around Earth in 1991.

Blazars are optically violently variable quasars and BL Lacertae objects that comprise a subgroup of quasars. The spectra of BL Lacertae objects make it difficult to determine the nature of these objects. BL Lacertae was found to be at the center of a giant elliptical galaxy, which Joseph Miller at Lick Observatory found in 1978.

Another interesting phenomenon has been the detection of double and multiple quasars that are very close together. The symmetric patterns of these multiple quasars are most readily explained by gravitational lensing of a very distant quasars light by a galaxy that is too distant to be detected visually but is, nevertheless, between the quasar and the Milky Way galaxy. The lensing is caused by the bending of light in a strong gravitational field (as predicted by the General Theory of Relativity). Among the most recent examples is the Cloverleaf Quasar, where presumably an unseen galaxy between a quasar and the Milky Way has formed four images of the quasar.

Another example of gravitationally lensing is the quasar APM 08279+5255, which was discovered in 1998. The Hubble Space Telescope placed its absolute magnitude at -32.2. However, the Keck Telescope later saw that the quasar was gravitationally lensed by a factor of about ten. Thus, its absolute magnitude is now thought to be about -30.3, however, even that value is known to have been affected by lensing.

The detection of galaxies associated with blazars and of multiple images of quasars presumably formed by gravitational lensing by galaxies too distant to the be detected otherwise has favored the hypothesis that the quasars are similar to distant galaxies. This idea conforms to Hubbles law, and represent a phenomenon that was more common in earlier stages of the development of the universe than it is at present.

The Big bang theory is driving the search for closer, later quasars, in order to fill in the gap in the evolution of the universe between the most distant (hence earliest) quasars now known, and the background remnant radiation from the primeval fireball of the early universe, which comes to Earth from the time when matter and radiation decoupled in the early evolution of the universe.

In January 2003, the Hubble Space Telescope imaged the relatively nearby quasar, 3C273. By utilizing techniques that blocked the quasars light, astronomers were able to observe significantly more details of the quasars host galaxy. Accordingly, in addition to identifying and studying quasars, in some cases astronomers are now able to see into regions of the cosmos these powerful beacons normally mask. As of 2006, all identified quasars lie from 780 million light-years to 13 billion light-years away from Earth. The furthest away quasar now known, with a redshift of 6.4, is seen by scientists on Earth when the universe was only about 800 million years old, since this light has been traveling for about 13 billion years.

See also Stellar evolution.

Resources

BOOKS

Hawking, Stephen. The Illustrated Brief History of Time, Updated and Expanded. New York: Bantam, 2001.

Kirshner, Robert P. The Extravagant Universe: Exploding Stars, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Cosmos. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Kundt, Wolfgang. Astrophysics: A New Approach. Berlin and New York: Springer, 2005.

Raine, Derek J. Black Holes: An Introduction. London, UK: Imperial College Press, 2005.

Rees, Martin J. Our Cosmic Habitat. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Sagan, Carl. Cosmos. New York: Random House, 1980.

PERIODICALS

Meyer, A. Quasars from a Complete Spectroscopic Survey. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 324:2 (2001): 343-354.

Phillipps, Steven. The proximity effect as a probe of cosmological models. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 336:2 (2002): 587-591.

K. Lee Lerner

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Quasar

Quasar

Quasi-stellar radio sources (quasars) are the most distant cosmic objects observed by astronomers. Although not visible to the naked eye , quasars are also among the most energetic of cosmic phenomena.

Although some quasars may be physically smaller in size than our own solar system , some quasars are calculated to be brighter than hundreds of galaxies combined. Quasars and active galaxies appear to be related phenomena, each associated with massive rotating black holes in their central region. As a type of active galaxy , the enormous energy output of quasars can be explained using the theory of general relativity.

The great distance of quasars means that the light observed coming from them was produced when the Universe was very young. Because of the finite speed of light, large cosmic distances translate to looking back in time . The observation of quasars at large distances and of their nearby scarcity argues that quasars were much more common in the early Universe. Correspondingly, quasars may also represent the earliest stages of galactic evolution . This change in the Universe over time (e.g., specifically the rate of quasar formation) contradicted steady-state cosmological models that relied on a Universe that was the same in all directions (when averaged over a large span of space ) and at all times. Along with the discovery of ubiquitous cosmic background radiation , the discovery of quasars and tilted the cosmological argument in favor of Big Bang based cosmological models.


The discovery of quasars

In 1932, American engineer Karl Janskey (1905–1945) discovered existence of radio waves emanating from beyond the solar system. By the mid-1950s, an increasing number of astronomers using radio telescopes sought explanations for mysterious radio emissions from optically dim stellar sources.

In 1962, British radio astronomer Cyril Hazard used the moon as an occultive shield to discover strong radio emissions traceable to the constellation Virgo. Optical telescopes pinpointed a faint star-like object (subsequently designated quasar 3C273—3rd Cambridge Catalog, 273rd radio source) as the source of the emissions. Of greater interest was an unusual emission spectrum found associated with 3C273. Allan Sandage first reported several faint starlike objects as optical counterparts to radio sources in 1960. In 1963, American astronomer Marten Schmidt explained the abnormal spectrum from 3C273 as evidence of a highly redshifted spectrum. Red-shift describes the Doppler-like shift of spectral emission lines toward longer (hence, redder) wavelengths in objects moving away from an observer. Observers measure the light coming from objects moving away from them as redshifted (i.e., at longer wavelengths and at a lower frequency when the light was emitted). Conversely, observers measure the light coming from objects moving toward them as blueshifted (i.e., at shorter wavelengths and at a higher frequency when the light was emitted). Most importantly, the determination of the amount of an object's redshift allows the calculation of a recession velocity . Moreover, because the recession rate increases with distance, the recession velocity is a function (known as the Hubble relation ) of the distance to the receding object. After 3C273, many other quasars were discovered with similarly redshifted spectra.

Schmidt's calculation of the redshift of the 3C273 spectrum meant that 3C273 was approximately three billion light-years away from Earth . It became immediately apparent that, if 3C273 was so distant, it had to be many thousands of times more luminous than a normal galaxy for the light to appear as bright as it did from such a great distance. Refined calculations involving the luminosity of 3C273 indicate that, although dim to optical astronomers, the quasar is actually five trillion times as bright as the Sun . The high redshift of 3C273 also implied a great velocity of recession measuring one-tenth the speed of light.


Modern observation and interpretation of quasars

Astronomers now assert that quasars represent a class of galaxies with extremely energetic centers. Large radio emissions seem most likely associated with large black holes with large amounts of matter available to enter the accretion disk . In fact, prior to more direct observations late in the twentieth century, the discovery of quasars provided at least tacit proof of the existence of black holes. Black holes form around a singularity (the remnant of a collapsed massive stars) with a gravitational field so intense that not even light can escape. Located outside the black hole is the accretion disk, an area of intense radiation emitted as matter heats and accelerates toward the black hole's event horizon . Further, as electrons in the accretion disk are accelerated to near light speed, they are influenced by a strong magnetic field to emit quasar-like radio waves in a process termed synchrotron radiation. Electromagnetic waves similar to the electromagnetic waves emanating from quasars are observed on Earth when physicists pass high-energy electrons through synchrotron particle accelerators . Studies of Quasar 3C273 and other quasars identified jets of radiation blasting tens of thousands of light-years into space.

In addition to radio and visible light emissions, some quasars emit light in other regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum including ultraviolet, infrared, x ray, and gamma-ray regions. In 1979, an x-ray quasar was found to have a redshift of 3.2, indicating a recession velocity equaling 97% the speed of light.

Not all quasars or active galaxies are alike. Although they seem optically similar to energetic quasars, at least 90% of active galaxies appear to be radio quiet. Accordingly, Seyfert galaxies or quasi-stellar objects (QSO) may be radio silent or emit electromagnetic radiation at greatly reduced levels. More than 1500 quasars have now been identified as distant QSO. One hypothesis accounts for these quiet quasars by linking them to smaller black holes, or to black holes in regions of space with less matter available for consumption.

Observations have shown that quasars are extra-galactic, but many questions about their distances and nature stirred great interest among astronomers in the latter half of the twentieth century. Assuming that modern astronomical theory holds true for these bodies, quasars are the most distant, and from their brightnesses, also the most luminous objects known. The most luminous ones are thousands of times more energetic than larger, luminous galaxies such as the Milky Way and Messier 31. In spite of this, quasar brightnesses are quite variable, changing in times of hours and sometimes doubling their luminosities in as short a timespan as a week. This means that the main source or sources of their luminosity must be situated in a volume of space not much larger than a solar system, which light can cross in 12 hours. This is an enormous power source (luminosity) to fit into such a relatively small volume.

Astrophysics supplies two possible sources for such enormous energy from such small regions. They are:

  • Matter falling into an enormous black hole with a mass on the order of 1010 solar masses or more, where much of the gravitational energy released during the matter's infall towards the black hole is converted into light and other radiation in an accretion disk of matter surrounding the black hole.
  • The annihilation of ordinary matter (electrons, protons, etc.) and antimatter (positrons, etc.) as they collide at enormous rates.

The first of those is favored today by most astronomers, because there is independent evidence for the existence of such massive black holes in galaxies. The second possibility would produce enormous intensities of gamma radiation at definite energies (wavelengths); these have not been observed by the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft that the NASA launched into orbit around the Earth in 1991.

Blazars are optically violently variable quasars and BL Lacertae objects that comprise a subgroup of quasars. The spectra of BL Lacertae objects make it difficult to determine the nature of these objects. BL Lacertae was found to be at the center of a giant elliptical galaxy, which Joseph Miller at Lick Observatory found in 1978.

Another interesting phenomenon has been the detection of double and multiple quasars that are very close together. The symmetric patterns of these multiple quasars are most readily explained by gravitational lensing of a very distant quasar's light by a galaxy that is too distant to be detected visually but is nevertheless between the quasar and the Milky Way. The lensing is caused by the bending of light in a strong gravitational field (as predicted by the General Theory of Relativity). Among the most recent examples is the Cloverleaf Quasar, where presumably an unseen galaxy between a quasar and the Milky Way has formed four images of the quasar.

The detection of galaxies associated with blazars and of multiple images of quasars presumably formed by gravitational lensing by galaxies too distant to be detected otherwise has favored the hypothesis that the quasars are similar to distant galaxies, conform to Hubble's law, and represent a phenomenon that was more common in earlier stages of the development of our universe than it is at present.


Big bang theory is driving the search for closer, later quasars, in order to fill in the gap in the evolution of the universe between the most distant (hence earliest) quasars now known, and the background remnant radiation from the primeval fireball of the early universe, which comes to us from the time when matter and radiation decoupled in the early evolution of the universe.

In January 2003, the Hubble Space Telescope imaged the relatively nearby quasar, 3C273. By utilizing techniques that blocked the quasar's light, astronomers were able to observe significantly more details of the quasar's host galaxy. Accordingly, in addition to identifying and studying quasars, in some cases astronomers are now able to see into regions of the cosmos these powerful beacons normally mask.

See also Stellar evolution.


Resources

books

Hawking, Stephen. The Illustrated Brief History of Time, Updated and Expanded. New York: Bantam, 2001.

Kirshner, Robert P. The Extravagant Universe: ExplodingStars, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Cosmos. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Rees, Martin J. Our Cosmic Habitat. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Sagan, Carl. Cosmos. New York: Random House, 1980.

periodicals

Meyer, A. "Quasars from a Complete Spectroscopic Survey." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 324 no. 2 (2001): 343-354.

Phillipps, Steven. "The proximity Effect as a Probe of Cosmological Models." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 336 no. 2 (2002): 587-591.

other

Cambridge University. "Cambridge Cosmology." [cited February 18, 2003] <http://www. damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/cos_home.html>.


K. Lee Lerner

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