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precession of the equinoxes

precession of the equinoxes, westward motion of the equinoxes along the ecliptic. This motion was first noted by Hipparchus c.120 BC The precession is due to the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun on the equatorial bulge of the earth, which causes the earth's axis to describe a cone in somewhat the same fashion as a spinning top. As a result, the celestial equator (see equatorial coordinate system), which lies in the plane of the earth's equator, moves on the celestial sphere, while the ecliptic, which lies in the plane of the earth's orbit around the sun, is not affected by this motion. The equinoxes, which lie at the intersections of the celestial equator and the ecliptic, thus move on the celestial sphere. Similarly, the celestial poles move in circles on the celestial sphere, so that there is a continual change in the star at or near one of these poles (see Polaris). After a period of about 26,000 years the equinoxes and poles lie once again at nearly the same points on the celestial sphere. Because the gravitational effects of the sun and moon are not always the same, there is some wobble in the motion of the earth's axis; this wobble, called nutation, causes the celestial poles to move, not in perfect circles, but in a series of S-shaped curves with a period of 18.6 years. There is some further precession caused by the gravitational influences of the other planets; this precession affects the earth's orbit around the sun and thus causes a shift of the ecliptic on the celestial sphere. The precession of the earth's orbital plane is sometimes called planetary precession, and that of the earth's equatorial plane (caused by the sun and moon) is called luni-solar precession; the combined effect of the moon, the sun, and the planets is called general precession. Planetary precession is much less than luni-solar precession. The precession of the equinoxes was first explained by Isaac Newton in 1687.

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precession of the equinoxes

precession of the equinoxes in astronomy, the slow retrograde motion of equinoctial points along the ecliptic; the resulting earlier occurrence of equinoxes in each successive sidereal year.

As the earth rotates about its axis it responds to the gravitational attraction of the sun upon its equatorial bulge, so that its axis of rotation describes a circle in the sky, with a period of about 26,000 years. The precession of the equinoxes was discovered by Hipparchus in c.125 bc, when the vernal equinox was in Aries.

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precession of the equinoxes

precession of the equinoxes See MILANKOVICH CYCLES.

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Precession of the Equinoxes

Precession of the Equinoxes

Resources

The precession of the equinoxes (sometimes simply called precession), is a movement of the celestial equator (the projection of Earths equator into space) with respect to the fixed stars and the ecliptic (the path of the suns motion in space as viewed from Earth). These two great circles in space are inclined to one another by an angle of approximately 23.5°, called the obliquity. Their intersection defines the equinox. The

equator moves from east to westin the same direction as the daily motion of the sunat a rate of about 50.2° per year.

Ancient Greek astronomer Hipparchus (c. 166125 BC) discovered precession when he compared positions of stars for his epoch with observations made 150 years earlier by ancient Greek astronomer and philosopher Timocharis of Alexandria (c. 320260 BC). Hipparchus determined that the precession was at least 36˝ per year and probably in the range 45 to 46˝, close to the modern value (although the value is not the same in all parts of the sky).

Although precession was discovered in antiquity, its cause was unexplained until formulated in the seventeenth century. In his Principia Mathematica, English physicist and mathematician Sir Issac Newton (1643 1727) demonstrated that precession results from the nonspherical shape of Earth. Consider the motion of another nonspherical object, a spinning top. If the top were not spinning, but merely balanced on its axis, a slight push would topple it over because the gravitational pull on one side would exceed that on the other. However, with the top spinning, the force generated by the spin prevents the top from falling, moving it in a direction perpendicular to the line of gravitational pull. The tops axis, then, precesses, and it traces a cone in space (Figure 1).

The same occurs with Earth. Earth is slightly flattened (it is actually in the shape of an oblate spheroid), with the distance from its center to the equator being 0.3% greater than the distance from its center to the poles. Both the sun, moving in the ecliptic, and the moon, whose orbit is inclined 5° to the ecliptic, generate gravitational pulls on the equatorial bulge. If Earth were not spinning, its equator would eventually line up near the ecliptic. However, because of its daily rotation, Earth, like a top, precesses; its axis of rotation traces a cone in space with a period of (360°×60 ˝

60˝)/50.2˝ per year or about 25,800 years (also called a Platonic year). The precession generated by the gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon is called luni-solar precession and amounts to some 50.3˝ per year, two-thirds of which is caused by the moon (Figure 2).

However, the precessional motion is actually more complicated. Earth moves in its orbit, coinciding with the ecliptic, but it is subject to the gravitational pull of the other planets called the planetary precession. These gravitational forces cause the ecliptic, and hence the equinox, to precess at a rate of 0.12˝ per year,

much smaller than the luni-solar precession. The luni-solar and planetary precession, together, constitute the general precession. The plane of the moons orbit does not remain stationary in space; it oscillates around a mean value and rotates with a period of 18.6 years. These changes cause small oscillations in the precession, constituting an astronomical nutation, with an amplitude 9.2˝ and a period of 18.6 years. English astronomer James Bradley (16931762) announced the discovery of nutation in 1748.

Astronomical observations of the positions of celestial bodies must be corrected to account for the effects of precession and nutation. The displacement caused by precession appears negligible during the span of a human life, but the resulting movements become significant over the course of several centuries. Presently, the bright star Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor lies within 1° of the north celestial pole and offers a convenient guide, as in celestial navigation, for ascertaining the northern direction. However, at the time of the Egyptian Second Dynasty (ca. 2800 BC) Polaris was more than 26° from the pole, whereas the star Thuban in the Draco constellation (currently 25°from the pole), was situated less than 2´ from the pole. In the year AD 13400 the very bright star Vega in the Lyra constellation, currently over 61° from the pole, will be located fewer than 5° from the pole. At that time the seasons in the two hemispheres will be reversed. The Northern Hemisphere will receive the most sunshine in December, and the least in June. December,

KEY TERMS

Celestial equator The projection into space of Earths equator.

Ecliptic Apparent path of the sun in the sky or, alternatively, the plane of Earths orbit in space.

Equinox Intersection of the celestial equator (the projection of Earths equator into space) and the ecliptic (the path of the suns motion in space as viewed from Earth).

General precession Combined luni-solar and planetary precession.

Luni-solar precession Precession caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon on Earths equator.

Nutation Periodic oscillation in the precession caused principally by the moon.

Obliquity The angle formed by the intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic.

Planetary precession Precession caused by the gravitational pull of the planets on Earth as a whole.

January, and February will become summer months and June, July, and August will be the winter months; the reverse will be true in the Southern Hemisphere. December, January, and February, currently summer months, will become winter months.

See also Gravity and gravitation.

Resources

BOOKS

Arny, Thomas. Explorations: An Introduction to Astronomy. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2006.

Aveni, Anthony F. Uncommon Sense: Understanding Natures Truths Across Time and Culture. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2006.

Bartusiak, Marcia, ed. Archives of the Universe: A Treasury of Astronomys Historic Works of Discovery. New York: Pantheon Books, 2004.

Chaisson, Eric. Astronomy: A Beginners Guide to the Universe. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2004.

Cheng, Ta-Pei. Relativity, Gravitation, and Cosmology: A Basic Introduction. Oxford, UK, and New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Murray, C.A. Vectorial Astrometry. Bristol, U.K.: Adam Hilger Ltd., 1983, Ch. 5.

Newcomb, S. Compendium of Spherical astronomy. Dover, New York: 1960.

PERIODICALS

Krzeminski, Z.S. How Precession Changes the Coordinates of a Star. Sky & Telescope (October 1991): 408.

Richard L. Branham, Jr.

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Precession of the Equinoxes

Precession of the equinoxes

The precession of the equinoxes (sometimes simply called precession), is a movement of the celestial equator, the projection of the earth's equator into space , with respect to the fixed stars and the ecliptic, the path of the Sun's motion in space as viewed from the earth . These two great circles in space are inclined to one another by an angle of approximately 23.5°, called the obliquity. Their intersection defines the equinox . The equator moves from east to west—in the same direction as the daily motion of the Sun—at a rate of about 50.°2 per year.

Ancient Greed astronomer Hipparchus (ca. 150 b.c.) discovered precession when he compared positions of stars for his epoch with observations made 150 years earlier by Timocharis (early third century b.c.). Hipparchus determined that the precession was at least 36" per year and probably in the range 45-46," close to the modern value (although the value is not the same in all parts of the sky).

Although precession was discovered in antiquity, its cause was unexplained until formulated in the seventeenth century. In his Principia Mathematica, Sir Issac Newton (1643-1727) demonstrated that precession results from the nonspherical shape of the earth. Consider the motion of another nonspherical object, a spinning top. If the top were not spinning, but merely balanced on its axis, a slight push would topple it over because the gravitational pull on one side would exceed that on the


other. But with the top spinning, the force generated by the spin prevents the top from falling, moving it in a direction perpendicular to the line of gravitational pull. The top's axis then precesses and traces a cone in space.

The same occurs with the earth. The earth is slightly flattened, with the distance from its center to the equator being 0.3% greater than the distance from its center to the poles. Both the Sun , moving in the ecliptic, and the Moon , whose orbit is inclined 5° to the ecliptic, generate gravitational pulls on the equatorial bulge. If the earth were not spinning, its equator would eventually line up near the ecliptic. But because of its daily rotation , the earth, like a top, precesses; its axis of rotation traces a cone in space with a period of (360° × 60' × 60")/50. 2" per year or 25,800 years (also called a Platonic year). The precession generated by the gravitational pulls of the Sun and the Moon is called luni-solar precession and amounts to some 50.3" per year, two-thirds of which is caused by the Moon.

But the precessional motion is actually more complicated. The earth moves in its orbit, coinciding with the ecliptic, but it is subject to the gravitational pull of the other planets called the planetary precession. These gravitational forces cause the ecliptic, and hence the equinox, to precess at a rate of 0.12" per year, much smaller than the luni-solar precession. The luni-solar and planetary precession together constitute the general precession. The plane of the Moon's orbit does not remain stationary in space; it oscillates around a mean value and rotates with a period of 18.6 years. These changes cause small oscillations in the precession, constituting an astronomical nutation, with an amplitude 9.2" and a period of 18.6 years. English astronomer James Bradley (1693-1762) announced the discovery of nutation in 1748.

Astronomical observations of the positions of celestial bodies must be corrected to account for the effects of precession and nutation. The displacement caused by precession appears negligible during the span of a human life, but the resulting movements become significant over the course of several centuries. In our time the bright star Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor lies within 1° of the north celestial pole and offers a convenient guide, as in celestial navigation, for ascertaining the northern direction. But at the time of the Egyptian Second Dynasty (ca. 2800 b.c.) Polaris was more than 26° from the pole, whereas the star Thuban in the Draco constellation (currently 25° from the pole), was situated less than 2' from the pole. In the year a.d. 13,400 the very bright star Vega in the Lyra constellation, currently over 61° from the pole, will be located less than 5° from the pole. At that time the seasons in the two hemispheres will be reversed. The Northern Hemisphere will receive the most sunshine in December, and the least in June. December, January, and February will become summer months and June, July, and August winter months; the reverse will be true in the Southern Hemisphere. December, January, and February, currently summer months, will become winter months.

See also Gravity and gravitation.

Resources

books

Murray, C.A. Vectorial Astrometry. Bristol, U.K.: Adam Hilger Ltd., 1983.

Newcomb, S. Compendium of Spherical astronomy. Dover, New York: 1960.


periodicals

Krzeminski, Z.S. "How Precession Changes the Coordinates of a Star." Sky & Telescope (October 1991): 408.


Richard L. Branham,

KEY TERMS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Celestial equator

—The projection into space of the earth's equator.

Ecliptic

—Apparent path of the Sun in the sky or, alternatively, the plane of the earth's orbit in space.

Equinox

—Intersection of the celestial equator (the projection of Earth's equator into space) and the ecliptic (the path of the Sun's motion in space as viewed from the earth).

General precession

—Combined luni-solar and planetary precession.

Luni-solar precession

—Precession caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and the Moon on the earth's equator.

Nutation

—Periodic oscillation in the precession caused principally by the Moon.

Obliquity

—The angle formed by the intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic.

Planetary precession

—Precession caused by the gravitational pull of the planets on the earth as a whole.

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